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204 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
abdomin/o
celi/o
lapar/o
abdomen
an/o
anus
appendic/o
appendix
bil/i
chol/e
bile
bucc/o
cheek
cheil/o
lip
col/o
colon/o
colon
cyst/o
bladder or sac
dent/i
teeth
doch/o
duct
duoden/o
duodenum
enter/o
small intestine
esophag/o
esophagus
gastr/o
stomach
gingiv/o
gum
gloss/o
lingu/o
tongue
hepat/o
hepatic/o
liver
herni/o
hernia
ile/o
ileum
inguin/o
groin
jejun/o
jejunum (empty)
lith/o
stone
or/o
stomat/o
mouth
pancreat/o
pancreas
peritone/o
peritoneum
phag/o
eat or swallow
proct/o
anus and rectum
pylor/o
pylorus (gatekeeper)
rect/o
rectum
sial/o
saliva
sigmoid/o
sigmoid colon (resembles s)
steat/o
fat
-emesis
vomiting
oral cavity
mouth
cavity that receives food for digestion
salivary glands
three pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva: the parotid, submandibular (submaxillary), and sublingual glands
cheeks
lateral walls of the mouth
lips
fleshy structures surrounding the mouth
palate
structure that forms the roof of the mouth, divided into the hard and soft palate
uvula
small projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palate
tongue
muscular structure of the floor of the mouth covered by mucous membrane and held down by a bandlike membrane know as the frenulum
gums
tissue covering the process of the jaws
teeth
hard bony projections in the jaws for masticating food
pharynx
throat; passageway for food traveling to the esophagus and air traveling to the larynx
esophagus
muscular tube that moves food from the pharynx to the stomach
stomach
saclike organ that chemicaly mixes and prepares food recived from the esophagus
cardiac sphincter
opening from the esophagus to the stomach (sphincter=band)
pyloric sphincter
opening from the stomach to the duodenum
small intestine
tubular structure that digests food received from the stomach
duodenum
first portion of the small intestine
jejunum
second portion of the small intestine
ileum
thrid portion of the small intestine
large intestine
larger tubular structure that receives the liquid waste products of digestion, reabsorbs water and minerals, and forms and stores feces for defecation
cecum
first part of the large intestine
vermiform appendix
wormlike projection of lymphatic tissue hanging off the cecum with no digestive function; may help resist infection
colon
portions of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum, identified by direction or shape
ascending colon
portion of colon that extends upward from the cecum
transverse colon
portion of colon that extends across from the ascending cecum
descending colon
portion of colon that extends down from the transverse colon
sigmoid colon
portion of colon (resembling an "S") that terminates at the rectum
rectum
distal (end) portion of the large intestine
rectal ampulla
dilated portion of the rectum just above the anal canal
anus
opening of the rectum to the outside of the body
feces
waste formed by absorption of water in the large intestine; usually solid
defecation
evacuation of feces from the rectum
peritoneum
membrane surrounding the entire abdominal cavity, consisting of the parietal layer (lining th abdominal wall) and visceral layer (covering each organ in the abdomen)
peritoneal cavity
space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum
omentum
an extension of the peritoneum attached to the stomach and connecting it with other abdominal organs
liver
organ in the upper right quadrant that produces bile, which is secreted into the duodenum during digestion
gallbladder
receptacle that stores and concentrates the bile produced in the liver
pancreas
gland that secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum, when it mixes with bile to digest food
biliary ducts
ducts that convey bile; include the hepatic, cystic, and common bile ducts.
hypochondriac regions
upper lateral regions beneath the ribs
epigastric region
upper middle region below the sternum
lumbar regions
middle lateral regions
umbilical region
region of the navel
inguinal regions
lower lateral groin regions
hypogastric region
region below the navel
anorexia
loss of appetite
aphagia
inability to swallow
ascites
accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
buccal
in the cheek
diarrhea
frequent loose or liquid stools
constipation
infrequent or incomplete bowel movements, characterized by hardened dry stool that is difficult to pass
dyspepsia
indigestion
dysphagia
difficulty swallowing
eructation
belch
flatulence
gas in the stomach or intestines
halitosis
bad breath
hematochezia
red blood in stool
hematemesis
vomiting blood
hepatomegaly
enlargement of the liver
hyperbilirubinemia
excessive level of bilirubin (bile pigment) in the blood
icterus
jaundice
yellow discoloration of the skin, sclera (white of the eye), and other tissues caused by excessive bilirubin in the blood (jaundice = yellow)
melena
dark colored, tarry stool caused by old blood
nausea
feeling of sick in the stomach
steatorrhea
feces containing fat
sublingual
hypoglossal
under the tongue
stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth
sialoadenitis
inflammation of a salivary gland
parotiditis
parotitis
inflammation of the parotid gland, also called mumps
cheilitis
inflammation of the lip
glossitis
inflammation of the tongue
ankyloglossia
defect of the tongue characterized by a short, thick frenulum
gingivitis
inflammation of the gums
esophageal varices
swollen, twisted veins in the esophagus that are especially susceptible to ulceration and hemorrage
esophagitis
inflammation of the esophagus
gastritis
inflammation of the stomach
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
backflow of contents of the stomach into the esophagus, often resulting from abnormal function of the lower esophageal sphincter, causing burning pain in the esophagus
pyloric stenosis
narrowed condition of the pylorus
peptic ulcer disease (PUD)
sore on the mucous membrane of the stomach, duodenum, or any other part of the gastrointestinal system exposed to gastric juices; commonly caused by infection with Helicbacter pylori bacteria
gastric ulcer
ulcer located in the stomach
duodenal ulcer
ulcer located in the duodenum
gastroenteritis
inflammation of the stomach and small intestine
enteritis
inflammation of the small intestine
ileitis
inflammation of the lower portion of the small intestine
colitis
inflammation of the colon (large intestine)
ulcerative colitis
chronic inflammation of the colon along with ulcerations
diverticulum
abnormal side pocket in the gastrointestinal tract usually related to lack of dietary fiber
diverticulosis
presence of diverticula in the gastrointestinal tract, especially the bowel
diverticulitis
inflammation of diverticula
dysentery
inflammation of the intestine characterized by frequent, bloody stools, most often caused by bacteria or protozoa (e.g. amebic dysentery)
appendicitis
inflammation of the appendix
hernia
protrustion of a part from its normal location
hiatal hernia
protrusion of part of the stomach upward through the opening in the diaphragm
inguinal hernia
protrusion of a loop of the intestive through layers of the abdominal wall in the inguinal region
incarcerated hernia
hernia that is swollen and fixed within a sac, causing an obstruction
strangulated hernia
hernia that is constricted, cut off from circulation, and likley to become gangrenous
umbilical hernia
protrusion of the intestine through a weakness in the abdominal wall around the umbilicus (navel)
intussusception
prolapse of one part of the intestine into the lumen of the adjoining part (intus=within;suscipiens=to take up)
volvulus
twisting of the bowel on itself; causing obstruction (volvo = to roll)
polyposis
mulitple polyps in the intestine and rectum with a high potential for becoming malignant
polyp
tumor on a stalk
proctitis
inflammation of the rectum and anus
anal fistula
abnormal tubelike passageway from the anus that may connect with the rectum (fistula=pipe)
hemorrhoid
swollen, twisted vein (varicosity) in the anal region (haimorrhois = a vein likley to bleed)
peritonitis
inflammation of the peritoneum
hepatitis
inflammation of the liver
hapatitis A
infectious inflammation of the liver caused by the hapatitis A virus (HAV) transmitted orally through fecal contamination of food and water
hapatitis B
inflammation of the liver caused by the hapatitis B virus (HBV) which is transmitted sexually or by exposure to contaminatied blood or body fluids
hapatitis C
inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmitted by exposure to infected blood (rarely sexually)
cirrhosis
chronic disease characterized by degeneration of liver tissue most often caused by alcoholism or a nutritional deficiency (cirrho=yellow)
cholangitis
inflammation of the bile ducts
cholecystitis
inflammation of the gallbladder
cholelithiasis
presence of stones in the gallbladder or bile ducts
choledocholithiasis
presence of stones in the common bile duct
pancreatitis
inflammation of the pancreas
biopsy (Bx)
removal and microscopic study of tissue
incisional Bx
removal of a portion of a lesion for pathologic examination
excisional Bx
removal of an entire lesion for pathologic examination
endoscopy
use of a flexable camera for interal examination
gastroscopy
examination of the esophagus with an endoscope
upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy
examination of the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum with a flexable exdoscope; also called esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or panendoscopy
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
endoscopic procedure including x-ray fluoroscopy to examine the ducts of the liver, gallbladder and pancreas (biliary ducts)
laparoscopy
examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope, often including interventional surgical procedures
peritoneoscopy
examination of the peritoneal cavity with a peritoneoscope, often performed to examine the liver and obtain a biopsy specimen
colonoscopy
examination of the colon using a flexible colonscope
sigmoidosopy
examination of the sigmoid colon with a rigid or flexible sigmoidscope
proctoscopy
examination of the rectum and anus with a proctoscope
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
nonionizing imageing technique for visualizing the abdominal cavity to identity disease or deformity in the gastrointestinal tract
radiography
x-ray imaging used to detect a condition or anomaly within the gastrointestinal tract
upper GI series
x-ray of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum after the patient has swallowed a contrast medium (barium)
barium swallow
x-ray of the esophagus only, often used to located swallowed objects
fluoroscopy
x-ray using a fluorescent screen to visualize structures in motion (such as during a barium swallow)
small bowel series
x-ray examination of the small intestine, generally done in conjunction with an upper GI series
lower GI series barium enema
x-ray of the colon after administration of an enema containing a contrast medium
computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen
cross-sectional x-rays of the abdomen used to identify a condition or anomaly within the gastrointestinal tract
cholangiogram
x-ray of the bile ducts, often performed during surgery
cholecystogram
x-ray of the gallbladder taken after oral ingestion of iodine
sonography
ultrasound imaging
abdominal sonogram
ultrasound image of the abdomen to detect disease or deformity in organs and cascular structures (e.g. liver, pancreas, etc)
endoscopic sonography
an endoscopic procedure using a sonographic transducer within an endoscope to examine a body cavity and make sonographic images of structures and tissues
stool culture and sensitivity (C&S)
isolation of a stool specimen in a culture medium to identify disease causing organisms; if organisma are persent, the drugs to which they are sensitive are listed
stool occult blood study
chemical test of a stool specimen to detect the presence of blood; positive finding indicate bleeding in the GI tract
cheiloplasty
repair of the lip
glossectomy
excision of the tongue
glossorrhaphy
suture of the tongue
esophagoplasty
repair of the esophagus
gastrectomy
partial or complete removal of the stomach
gastric resection
partial removal and repair of the stomach
gastroenterostomy
formation of an artificial opening between the stomach and small intestine; often performed at the time of a gastrectomy to route food from the remainder of the stomach to the intestine.
abdominocentesis
paracentesis
puncture of the abdomen for aspiration of fluid (e.g. fluid accumulated in ascites)
laparotomy
incision into the abdomen
laparoscopic surgery
abdominal surgery using a laparoscope
herniorrhaphy
repair of a hernia
(hernioplasty)
colostomy
creation of an opening in the colon through the abdominal wall to create an abdominal anus allowing stool to bypass a diseased portion og the colon; performed to treat ulcerative colitis, caner, or obstructions
anastomosis
union of two hollow vessels, a technique of bowel surgery
ileostomy
surgical creation of an opening of the abdomen to which the end of the ileum is attached, providing a passageway for ileal discharges, performed after removal of the colon such as to treat chronic inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis
appendectomy
excision of a diseased appendix
incidental appendectomy
removal of the appendix during abdominal surgery for another procedure
polypectomy
excision of polyps
proctoplasty
repair of the anus and rectum
anal fistulectomy
excision of hemorrhoids
hepatic lobectomy
excision of a lobe of the liver
cholecystectomy
excision of the gallbladder
laparoscopic cholecystectomy
excision of the gallbladder through a laparoscope
cholelithotomy
incision for removal of gallstones
choledocholithotomy
incision of the common bile duct for extraction of gallstones
pancreatectomy
excision of the pancreas
gastic lavage
oral insertion of a tube into the stomach for examination and treatment, such as to remove blood clots from the stomach or monitor bleeding (lavage=to wash)
nasogastric (NG) intubation
insertion of a tube through the nose into the stomach for various purposes, such as to obtain gastic fluid specimen for analysis
antacid
drug that nutralizes stomach acid
antiemetic
drug that prevents or stops vomiting
antispasmodic
drug that decreases mobility in gastrointestinal tract to arrest spasm or diarrhea
cathartic
drug that causes movement of the bowels; also called a laxative