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129 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
aden/o
gland
adren/o, adrenal/o
adrenal gland
andr/o
male
crin/o
to secrete
dips/o
thirst
gluc/o, glucos/o, glyc/o
glucose (sugar)
hormon/o
hormone (an urging on)
ket/o, keton/o
ketone bodies
pancreat/o
pancreas
thym/o
thymus gland
thyr/o, thyroid/o
thyroid gland (shield)
adrenal glands/suprarenal glands
located on the superior surface of each kidney; the adrenal cortex secretes steroid hormones, and the adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
steroid hormones
hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex
glucocorticoids
regulate carbohydrate metabolism and have antinflammatory effects; cortisol is the most significant glucocorticoid
mineral corticosteroids
maintain salt and water balance
androgens
influence development and maintenance of male sex characteristics, for example, facial hair, deep voice
catecholamines
hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla that affect the sympathetic nervous system in stress response
epinephrine. Adrenaline
secreted in response to fear or physical injury
norepinephrine
secreted in response to hypotension and physical stress
ovaries
located on both sides of the uterus in the female pelvis; secrete estrogen and progesterone
estrogen
responsible for the development of female secondary sex characteristics
progesterone
regulates uterine conditions during pregnancy
islets of Langerhans of the pancreas
endocrine tissue within the pancreas (the organ located behind the stomach, in front of the 1st and 2nd lumbar vertebrae); secretes insulin and glucagon
insulin
a hormone secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans that is responsible for regulating the metabolism of glucose (insulin=island)
glucagon
a hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans that serves to regulate carbohydrate metabolism by raising blood sugar
parathyroid glands
two paired glands located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland in the neck; secrete parathyroid hormone
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism
pineal gland
located in the center of the brain; secretes melatonin and serotonin
melatonin
exact function unknown; affects the onset of puberty
serotonin
a neurotransmitter that serves as the precursor to melatonin
pituitary gland, hypophysis
located at the base of the brain; considered the master gland as it secretes hormones that regulate the function of other glands, such as the thyroid, adrenal glands, ovaries, and testicles; the anterior pituitary secretes thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, and prolactin; the posterior pituitary releases
anterior pituitary, adenohypophysis
anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
stimulates secretion from thyroid gland
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
stimulates secretion from adrenal cortex
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
initiates the growth of ovarian follicle; stimulates the secretion of estrogen in females and the production sperm in males
luteinizing hormone (LH)
causes ovulation; stimulates the secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum; causes the secretion of testosterone in the testes
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
affects skin pigmentation
growth hormone (GH)
influences growth
prolactin, lactogenic hormone
stimulates breast development and milk production during pregnancy
posterior pituitary, neurohypophysis
posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
influences the absorption of water by kidney tubules
oxytocin
influences uterine contraction
testes
located on both sides within the scrotum in the male; secrete testosterone
testosterone
affects the masculinization and reproduction
thymus gland
located in the mediastinal cavity anterior to and above the heart; secretes thymosin
thymosin
regulates immune response
thyroid gland
located in front of the neck; secretes triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and calcitonin
triodothyronine (T3)
know as the thyroid hormones; regulate metabolism
thyroxine (T4)
know as the thyroid hormones; regulate metabolism
calcitonin
regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism
exophthalmos/exophthalmus
protrusion of one or both eyeballs, often because of thyroid dysfunction or a tumor behind the eyeball
glycosuria/glucosuria
glucose(sugar) in the urine
hirsutism
shaggy; an excessive growth of hair, especially in unusual places
hypercalcemia
an abnormally high level of calcium in the blood
hypocalcemia
an abnormally low level of calcium in the blood
hyperglycemia
high blood sugar
hypoglycemia
low blood sugar
hyperkalemia
an abnormally high level of potassium in the blood (kalium=potassium)
hypokalemia
deficient level of potassium in the blood
hypersecretion
abnormally increased secretion
hyposecretion
abnormally decreased secretion
ketosis, ketoacidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
presence of an abnormal amount of ketone bodies (acetone, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetic acid) in the blood and urine indicating an abnormal use of carbohydrates, such as in uncontrolled diabetes and starvation
metabolism
all chemical processes in the body that result in growth, generation of energy, elimination of waste, and other body functions
polydipsia
excessive thirst
polyuria
excessive urination
Cushing syndrome
a collection of signs and symptoms caused by an excessive level of cortisol hormone; may be due to excessive production by the adrenal gland (often because of a tumor), or, more commonly, occurs as a side effect of treatment with glucocorticoid (steroid) hormones, such as prednisone for diseases; symptoms include upper body obesity, facial puffiness (moon-shaped appearance),hyperglycemia, weakness, thin and easily bruised skin with stria (stretch marks), hypertension, and osteoporosis
adrenal virilism
excessive output of the adrenal secretion of androgen (male sex hormone) in adult women caused by a tumor or hyperplasia; evidenced by amenorrhea (absence of menstruation, acne, hirsutism, and deepening of the voice (virilis=masculine)
diabetes mellitus (DM)
metabolic disorder caused by the absence or insufficient production of insulin secreted by the pancreas, resulting in hyperglycemia and glucosuria diabetes=passing through; mellitus=sugar)
type 1 diabetes mellitus
diabetes in which no beta-cell production of insulin occurs and the patient is dependent on insulin for survival
type 2 diabetes mellitus
diabetes in which either the body produces insufficient insulin or insulin resistance (a defective use of the insulin that is produced) occurs; the patient usually is not dependent on insulin for survival
hyperinsulinism
a condition resulting from an excessive amount of insulin in the blood that draws sugar out of the bloodstream, resulting in hypoglycemia, fainting, and convulsions; often caused by an overdose of insulin or by a tumor of the pancreas
pancreatitis
inflammation of the pancreas
hyperparathyroidism
hypersecretion of the parathyroid glands, usually caused by a tumor
hypoparathyroidism
hyposecretion of the parathyroid glands
acromegaly
disease characterized by enlarged features, especially of the face and hands, caused by hypersecretion of the pituitary growth hormone after puberty, when normal bone growth has stopped; most often caused by a pituitary tumor
pituitary dwarfism
a condition of congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone that slows growth and causes short, yet proportionate, stature (not affecting intelligence); often treated during childhood with growth hormone; other forms of dwarfism are most often caused by genetic defects
pituitary gigantism
a conditional of hypersecretion of growth hormone during childhood bone development that leads to an abnormal overgrowth of bone, especially of the long bones; most often caused by a pituitary tumor
goiter
enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by thyroid dysfunction, tumor, lack of iodine in the diet, or inflammation (goiter=throat)
hyperthyroidism
a condition of hypersecretion the thyroid gland characterized by nervousness, weight loss, rapid pulse, protrusion of the eyeball (exophthalmos), goiter, etc.
graves disease
the most common form of hyperthyroidism; caused by an autoimmune defect that creates antibodies that stimulate the overproduction of thyroid hormones; exophthalmos is a featured characteristic
hypothyroidism
a condition of hyposecretion of the thyroid gland causing low thyroid levels in the blood that result in sluggishness, slow pulse, and, often, obesity
myxedema
advanced hypothyroidism in adults characterized by sluggishness, slow pulse, puffiness in the hands and face, and dry skin (myx-mucus)
cretinism
condition of congenital hypothyroidism in children that results in a lack of mental development and dwarfed phyical stature; the thyroid gland is either congenitally absent or imperfectly developed
blood sugar (BS), blood glucose
measurement of the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood
fasting blood sugar (FBS)
measurement of blood sugar level after fasting (not eating) for 12 hours
postprandial blood sugar (PPBS)
measurement of blood sugar level after a meal (commonly 2 hours later)
glucose tolerance test (GTT)
measurement of the body's ability to metabolize carbohydrates by administering a prescribed amount of glucose after a fasting period, then measuring blood and urine for glucose levels every hour tehreafter for 4 to 6 hours
glycohemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc)
a molecule (fraction) in hemoglobin, the level of which rises in the blood as a result of an increased level of blood sugar; a common blood test used in diagnosing and treating diabetes
electrolyte panel
measurement of the level of specific ions (sodium, potassium, and chloride) along with carbon dioxide (CO2) (for indirect measure of bicarbonate ion) in the blood; electrolytes are essential for maintaining water blance (hydration) as well as nerve, muscle, and heart activity
thyroid function study
measurement of thyroid hormone levels in blood plasma to determine the efficiency of glandular secretions, including T#, T$, and TSH
urine sugar and ketone studies
chemical tests to determine the presence of sugar or ketone bodies in urine; used as a screen for diabetes (Note: production of a urine specimen for these tests requires one to urinate or void [ empty the bladder])
computed tomography (CT)
CT of the head is used to obtain a transverse (horizontal view of the pituitary gland
magnetic resonance imagine (MRI)
nonionizing images of magnetic resonance are useful in identifying abnormalities of the pituitary gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, and thyroid glands
sonography
sonographic images are used to identify endocrine pathology, such as with thyroid ultrasound
thyroid uptake and image
radionuclide (nuclear medicine) scan of the thyroid to visualize the radioactive accumulation of previously injected isotopes to detect thyroid nodules or tumors
adrenalectomy
excision of the adrenal glands
hypophysectomy
excision of the pituitary gland
pancreatectomy
excision of the pancreas
parathyroidectomy
excision of the parathyroid glands
thymectomy
excision of the thymus gland
thyroidectomy
excision of the thyroid gland
continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), insulin pump therapy
use of an insulin delivery device that is worn on the body (usually the abdomen) and subcutaneously infuses doses of insulin programmed according to the individual needs of the diabetic patient
radioiodine therapy
use of radioactive iodine to treat disease, such as to eradicate thyroid tumor cells; treatment is administered in a nuclear medicine facility
antidiabetic drug
any of several agents used to control blood sugar levels in treatment of diabetes mellitus
antithyroid drug
an agent that blocks the production thyroid hormones; used to treat hyperthyroidism
hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
treatment with a hormone to correct a hormonal deficiency (e.g., estrogen, testosterone, and thyroid)
hypoglycemic, antihyperglycemic
a drug that lowers the blood glucose level (e.g. insulin)
ACTH
adrenocorticotropic hormone
ADH
antidiuretic hormone
BS
blood sugar
CO2
carbon dioxide
CSII
continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion
CT
computed tomography
DKA
diabetic ketoacidosis
DM
diabetes mellitus
FBS
fasting blood sugar
FSH
follicle-stimulating hormone
GH
growth hormone
GTT
glucose tolerance test
HbAlc
glycosylated hemoglobin
HRT
hormone replacement therapy
LH
luteinizing hormone
MRI
magnetic resonance imagine
MSH
melanocyte-stimulating hormone
PPBS
postprandial blood sugar
PTH
parathyroid hormone
T3
triiodothyronine
T4
thyroxine
TSH
thyroid-stimulating hormone