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143 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the smallest living unit; the fundamental unit of all living things
cell
surrounds and protects the cell; regulates what passes into and out of the cell
cell membrane
controls the operations of the cell; directs cell division and determines the structure and function of the cell
nucleus
rod-like structures within the nucleus; 23 pairs within all human body cells (except for the sex cells, which contain only 23 individual, unpaired chromosomes)
chromosomes
regions of DNA within each chromosome
genes
chemical found within each chromosome; arranged like a sequence of recipes in code, it regulates the activities of the cell by its sequence on each chromosome
DNA
a picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell
karyotype
includes all the material outside the nucleus and enclosed by the cell membrane; carries on the work of the cell
cytoplasm
small, sausage-shaped bodies that produce energy by burning food in the presence of oxygen
mitochondria
process of building up complex materials (proteins) from simple materials
anabolism
process of breaking down complex materials (foods) to form simpler substances and release energy
catabolism
structure (canals) within the cytoplasm; where large proteins are made from smaller protein pieces
endoplasmic reticulum
_____ are found on the endoplasmic reticulum
ribosomes
the total of the chemical processes in a cell (includes both catabolism and anabolism)
metabolism
collection of fat cells
adipose tissue
flexible connective tissue attached to bones at joints (e.g., surrounds the trachea and forms part of the external ear and nose)
cartilage
skin cells that cover the external body surface and line the internal surfaces of organs
epithelial cells
specialist in the study of tissues
histologist
voice box; located at the upper part of the trachea
larynx
throat; serves at the common passageway for both food and air
pharynx
endocrine gland at the base of the brain
pituitary gland
endocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck
thyroid gland
"windpipe" (tube leading from the throat to the bronchial tubes)
trachea
one of two tubes, each leading from a single kidney to the urinary bladder
ureter
tube from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
urethra
the womb
uterus
internal organs
viscera
long, slender cell containing fibers that aid in contracting and relaxing
muscle cell
may be long and have various fibrous extensions that aid in carrying impulses
nerve cell
contains large empty spaces for fat storage
fat cells
a group of similar cells working together to do a specific job
tissue
all tissue that covers the outside of the body and lines the inner surface of internal organs
epithelial tissue
examples are adipose tissue, cartilage, bone and blood
connective tissue
tissue that conducts impulses all over the body
nerve tissue
structures composed of several types of tissue
organs
groups of organs working together to perform complex functions
systems
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, gallblader, pancreas
digestive sytem
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
urinary or excretory system
nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, lungs
respiratory system
ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands
female reproductive system
testes and associated tubes, urethra, penis, prostate gland
male reproductive system
brain, spinal cord, nerves, and collections of nerves
nervous system
heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nodes, spleen, thymus gland
circulatory system
muscles, bones and joints
musculoskeletal system
skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands; eyes, ears, nose and tongue
skin and sense organs
a space within the body that contains internal organs (viscera)
body cavity
space below the chest containing organs such as the liver, stomach, gallbladder and intestines
abdominal cavity
space in the head containing the brain and surrounded by the skull
cranial cavity
pertaining to the skull
cranial
muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities
diaphragm
pertaining to the back
dorsal (posterior)
centrally located space between the lungs (containing the heart)
mediastinum
space below the abdomen containing portions of the intestines, rectum, urinary bladder and reproductive organs
pelvic cavity
double-layered membrane surrounding the abdominal organs
peritoneum
double-layered membrane surrounding each lung
pleura
space between the pleural membranes and surrounding each lung
pleural cavity
space within the spinal column and containing the spinal cord
spinal cavity (spinal canal)
space in the chest containing the heart, lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, esophagus and other organs
thoracic cavity
pertaining to the front
anterior
The cranial and spinal cavities are the _____ body cavities.
dorsal
The thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities are _____ body cavities.
ventral
upper right and left regions beneath the ribs
hypochondriac region
region above the stomach
epigastric region
middle right and left region near the waist
lumbar region
region of the navel or umbilicus
umbilical region
lower right and left regions near the groin; also called _____ regions
inguinal regions
iliac
lower middle region below the umbilical region
hypogastric region
contains the liver (right lobe), gallbladder, part of the pancreas, parts of the small and large intestines
right upper quadrant (RUQ)
contains the liver (left lobe), stomach, spleen, part of the pancreas, parts of small and large intestines
left upper quadrant (LUQ)
contains parts of the small and large intestines, right ovary, right fallopian tube, appendix, right ureter
right lower quadrant (RLQ)
contains parts of the small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, left ureter
left lower quadrant (LLQ)
bone(s) of the spinal column
vertebra(e)
neck region (C1 to C7)
cervical
chest region (T1 to T12)
thoracic
loin (waist) region (L1 to L5)
lumbar
region of the sacrum (S1 to S5)(five fused bones)
sacral
region of the coccyx (tailbone)
coccygeal
bone tissue surrounding the spinal cavity
spinal column
nervous tissue within the spinal cavity
spinal cord
a pad of cartilage between vertebrae
disk (disc)
front surface of the body
anterior (ventral)
away from the surface
deep
far from the point of attachment to the trunk or far from the beginning of a structure
distal
vertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions
frontal (coronal) plane
below another structure; pertaining to the tail or lower portion of the body
inferior (caudal)
pertaining to the side
lateral
pertaining to the middle or near the medial plane of the body
medial
back surface of the body
posterior (dorsal)
lying on the belly (face down, palms down)
prone
near the point of attachment to the trunk or near the beginning of a structure
proximal
lengthwise, vertical plane dividing the body or structure into right and left sides
sagittal (lateral) plane
plane that divides the body into right and left halves
midsagittal plane
on the surface
superficial
above another structure; pertaining to the head
superior (cephalic)
lying on the back (face up, palms up)
supine
horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions
transverse (cross-sectional or axial) plane
abdomin/o
abdomen
adip/o
fat
anter/o
front
bol/o
to cast (throw)
cervic/o
neck (of the body or of the uterus)
chondr/o
cartilage
chrom/o
color
coccyg/o
coccyx (tailbone)
crani/o
skull
cyt/o
cell
dist/o
far, distant
dors/o
back portion of the body
hist/o
tissue
ili/o
ilium (part of the pelvic bone)
inguin/o
groin
kary/o
nucleus
later/o
side
lumb/o
lower back
medi/o
middle
nucle/o
nucleus
pelv/i
pelvis
poster/o
back, behind
proximo/o
nearest
sacr/o
sacrum
sarc/o
flesh
spin/o
spine, backbone
thel/o
nipple
thorac/o
chest
trache/o
trachea, windpipe
umbilic/o
navel, umbilicus
ventr/o
belly side of the body
vertebr/o
vertebra(e), backbone(s)
viscer/o
internal organs
ana-
up
cata-
down
epi-
above
hypo-
below
inter-
between
meta-
change
-eal
pertaining to
-iac
pertaining to
-ior
pertaining to
-ism
process, condition
-ose
pertaining to, full of
-plasm
formation
-somes
bodies
-type
picture, classification