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123 Cards in this Set

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Agranulocytosis
slight increase in the number of agranulocytes
Anisocytosis
slight increase in the number of unequal sized cells
Basophil
type of white blood cell that stains blue with a basic dye
Elliptocytosis
slight increase in the number of elliptical-shaped red blood cells
Eosinophil
type of white blood cell tha t stains rosy-red with the acid dye eosin
Erythremia
abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells (also known as polycythemia vera)
Erythroblast
immature red blood cell
Erythrocyte
red blood cell
Erythrocytosis
slight increase in the number of red blood cells
Erythropenia
deficiency in the number of red blood cells
Erythropoiesis
manufacture of red blood cells
Hematopoiesis
manufacture of blood cells
Hemolysis
destruction of red blood cells
Hemostasis
stoppage of blood flow
Hyperbilirubinemia
excessive amount of bilirubin in the blood
Hypercholesterolemia
excessive amount of cholesterol in the blood
Hyperchromia
a term used to describe red blood cells that are overpigmented or excessively pigmented
Hyperlipidemia
excessive amount of fats in the blood
Hypochromia
a term used to describe red blood cells that are under-pigmented
Leukemia
abnormal, excessive, uncontrollable increase in the number of white blood cells
Leukocyte; leucocyte
white blood cell
Leukocytosis
slight increase in the number of white blood cells usually due to infection or inflammation
Leukopenia
deficiency in the number of white blood cells
Lymphoblast
immature lymphocyte
Macrocytosis
slight increase in the number of macrocytes
Microcytosis
slight increase in the number of microcytes
Morphology
study of shape
Myelogenous
produced in the bone marrow
Neutrophil
type of white blood cell that stains purple with neutral dyes
Normochromia
normal colored red blood cells
Pancytopenia
deficiency of all types of blood cells
Poikilocytosis
variation in the shape of red blood cells
Polychromia
red blood cells of many colors
Polymorphonuclear
a type of neutrophil that has nuclei of many shapes
Reticulocyte
an immature red blood cell characterized by a network of granules within the cell membrane
Sideropenia
deficiency of iron in the blood
Spherocytosis
slight increase in the number of rounded (spherical) red blood cells
Thrombocytopenia
deficiency in the number of clotting cells (thrombocytes or platelets) (bleed too long without clotting)
Thrombocytosis
slight increase in the number of clotting cells (blood clots too quickly)
Thrombolysis
breakdown of a clot that is already formed
Thrombosis
abnormal condition of clots; blood clot
Autoimmune
immunity against one's own body tissues
Interstitial fluid
fluid placed or lying between the tissue spaces
Lymphadenopathy
disease or enlargement of the lymph glands; disease of the lymph nodes
Lymphangitis; lymphangiitis
inflammation of the lymph vessels
Lymphedema
accumulation of interstitial fluid leading to obstruction of the lymph in the lymph vessels
Lymphocyte
a lymph cell (a type of white blood cell)
Lymphoma
tumor of the lymphatics (often refers to malignant lymphoma)
Lymphopenia
deficiency in the number of lymphocytes in the blood
Phagocyte
cell that can engulf and digest unwanted material
Splenorrhaphy
suturing of the spleen
Thymectomy
removal of the thymus gland
Defiency anemia
lack of the essential ingrediants for the manufacture of red blood cells, causing abnormalities in red blood cell color and morphology
Iron deficiency anemia
most common type of anemia; caused by inadequate iron absorption or increased iron requirements
Pernicious anemia
anemia due to a lack of vitamin B12
Hereditary hemolytic anemias
genetically based anemias where the reduction in the number of red blood cells is due to excessive destruction
Sickle cell anemia
the red blood cells are sickle shaped rather than biconcave; the body's immune system recognizes these cells as abnormal and destroys them by phagocytosis, reducing the normal life span of a red blood cell
Sideroblastic anemia
results from an inability to use iron in hemoglobin synthesis, even though an adequate supply is available
Thalassemia
most commonly affects people of Mediterranean descent and is characterized by defective hemoglobin production
Acquired hemolytic anemia
increased destruction of red blood cells leading to the reduction in the number of red blood cells due to causes other than those that are genetically based
Erythroblastosis fetalis
hemolytic disease of the newborn results from an incompatibility of blood causing an antigen-antibody reaction between the maternal blood and that of the newborn or fetus, with subsequent destruction of fetal red blood cells
Aplastic anemia
results from defective stem cells interfering with erythropoiesis, or from damage to the bone marrow, causing pancytopenia
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)
excessive incrase in the number of lymphoblasts, usually occurs in children
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
abnormal increase in the number of myeloblasts (neutrophiles, eosinophils and basophils), can occur at any age with the average rate of survival being 1-2 years
Acute monoblastic leukemia
proliferation in the number of monoblasts (immature monocytes) can occur in children or adults
Chronic granulocytic leukemia; chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
abnormal increase in the number of immature granulocytes
chronic lymphocytic leukemia
proliferation of lymphocytes, usually occurs in middle or old age
hemophilia
genetic disorder characterized by dysfunction of the blood-clotting mechanism
polycythemia vera
abnormal increase in the production of red blood cells causing a slowing of circulation and a thickening of blood (also known as erythremia)
anaphylaxis
acute hypersensitivity reaction to an antigen
Autoimmune disease
disease in which the body's own cells instead of foreign cells are attacked by the immune system
Hodgkin's disease
neoplasm of the lymphatic tissue characterized by enlargement of the lymph nodes and spleen
hypersensitivity; allergies
allergies and hypersensitivity are side affects of the defense system's response to an antigen; antigens that case these undesirable side affects are called allergens, and include some drugs, plant pollens, and insect venom
Kaposi's sarcoma
a rare form of cancer of the lining of the blood capillaries
Mycobacterium avium complex infection
an opportunistic infection among AIDS patients
bleeding time
a coagulation test which measures the bleeding time of a puncture wound to the surface of the skin
antiglobulin test (Coombs' test)
used to detect any anitbodies on the surface of a patients red blood cells and used in the diagnosis of hemolylic anemias and erythroblastosis fetalis
complete blood count CBC
determination of the number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes in the blood; also measure the percent of red blood cells and amount of hemoglobin
erythrocyte count; red blood cell count
calculation of the number of red blood cells in a sample of blood
erythrocyte sedimentation rate ESR
measures the time it takes for erythrocytes to settle out from a sample of blood to the bottom of a tube; during inflammation, the red blood cells have an increased tendency to form rouleaux and fall faster
Hematocrit HCT
percentage of erythrocytes in the volume of blood
lipid profile
determination of the levels of such blood lipids as cholesterol and triglycerides
lipoprotein electrophoresis
lipoproteins are separated folowing the application of an electric field, allowing for careful analysis of the type and number of lipoproteins circulating in the blood
partial thromboplastin time PTT
a coagulation test which measures the time taken for a sample of blood to clot following the addition of thromboplastin (a blood-clotting agent)
platelet count
measure the amount of platelets in a sample of blood
prothrombin time PT
a coagulation test which measures the time taken for clot formation following the addition of a clot-forming agent
red blood cell indices
a collection of six different blood tests are performed to determine the volume of erythrocytes, hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin content in red blood cells. Included are: red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC
red blood cell morphology
the study of red blood cells for abnormalities of size, shape, color, and structure
size abnormalities
macrocytosis, microcytosis, anisocytosis
shape abnormalities
sperocytosis, elliptocytosis, sickle cells (crescent-shaped) poikilocytosis
color abnormalities
hypochromia, hyperchromia, polychromia
rouleaux
a common abnormality where the erythrocytes look like a pile of coins. Although the presense of rouleaux is normal, increased or decreased rouleaux is abnormal.
reticulocyte count
a determination of the percentage of reticulocytes to erythrocytes in a sample of blood
Schilling test
tests the body's ability to absorb vitamin B12 from the digestive tract into the blood
serum folate; folic acid
measures the amount of folic acid in a sample of blood (folic acid is included in the vitamin B complex and is found naturally in liver and yeast)
white blood cell differential
measures the amount of each different type of white blood cell in a sample of blood
white cell count
measures the number of leukocytes in a sample of blood
Doppler ultrasound
measures the speed at which the blood flows through a blood vessel
bone marrow biopsy, bone marrow aspiration
bone marrow is obtained for microscopic examination by placement of a needle through a bone, such as the sternum, into the bone marrow and withdrawing a sample for laboratory examination
antithrombotic therapy
prevents clot formation by interferring with the clotting mechanism
coagulants
agents used to aid in the clotting process (vitamin K is a common example)
thrombolytic agents
eliminates clot by breaking down fibrin (Streptokinase and tissue plasminogen activator TPA are examples)
lipid lowering agents; antihyperlipidemic agent
reduces the amounts of triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood
Mycobacterium avium complex infection
malignant tumor of the lymphatic tissues with enlargement of the lymph nodes; cellular histology of the malignant lymphocytes is different than in Hodgkin's disease
Pneumocystis carinii parasite
This parasite causes an opportunistic type of pneumonia
Tuberculosis
a common opportunistic disease among AIDS patients
lymphangiography
x-ray of the lymph vessels and lymph nodes following injection of a contrast dye usually through the feet
cytomegalovirus antibody
detection of the antibody to the cytomegalovirus, seen in AIDS patients
human immunodeficiency virus HIV antibody detection
tests blood for antibodies to HIV that causes AIDS
enzym-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
blood test used to screen patients for antibodies to HIV
immunoelectrophoresis
separation of immunoglobulins IgA, IgM, IgG, IgD, and IgE by an electric current in a sample of blood or urine
T and B lymphocyte subset enumeration
tests for B and T cell deficiency
Western blot
an antibody detection test for HIV in the blood
Histopathology
process tissues that have been surgically removed
Microtomy
process for microscopic examination consists in the removal of the water in the sample and its replacement with wax, this provides a solid sample that can be sliced
Clinical Microbiology
the identification of infectious microorganisms, which include bacteria, yeasts, viruses and fungi
Gram stain
renders the body cells and bacteria visible under the microscope and it helps divide bacteria into two large groups
cocci and bacilli
cocci - round shaped. bacilli - rod shaped
Immunohematology
cross-matching of blood. Donated blood is mixed with a sample of the patient's blood before a transfusion so that potentially adverse reactions can be discovered.
Agglutination
the clumping together of blood cells
Hemolysis
the rupture of blodo cells
Hematology
blood is frequently examined as an indicator of the state of the body's various organs. Blood cells are evaluated in relation to their size and shape, and the numbers of each different type of cell are counted.
Clinical chemistry
the chemical constituents of the body are determined in tests made by clinical chemistry