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23 Cards in this Set

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*Three types of blood vessels in the body?
*Arteries, veins, capillaries
*Arteries? Walls are made of? (4 things.)
*Large vessels that lead away from the heart; connective tissue, muscle tissue, elastic fibers, and innermost layer of epithelial cells (endothelium).
Endothelial cells do what?
Line all blood vessels, secrete factors that affect size of blood vessels, reduce blood clotting, and promote growth of blood vessels.
What is unique about arteries?
Because they carry blood away from the heart they must be strong to withstand high pressure of the heart. Elastic walls allow expansion as heartbeat pushes blood into body.
Arterioles?
Small branches of arteries. (Thinner and carry blood to the tiniest of blood vessels called capillaries.)
Capillaries? Walls are made of what? Why?
Delicate, microscopic vessels that carry nutrient-rich oxygen blood from arteries and arterioles to body cells; Walls = 1 endothelial cell thick; Allows passage of oxygen and nutrients out of bloodstream and into cells. Also allows waste products and water to pass out of cells and into capillaries.
Waste-filled blood flows where to where?
Cells to heart in venules
Venules?
Small veins that carry waste-filled blood.
Veins? Walls are made of what?
Conduct blood (that has given up most of its oxygen) to heart from tissues; They have thinner walls than arteries. Have little elastic tissue and less connective tissue than arteries.
How do veins keep blood moving toward heart?
They have valves that prevent backflow. Muscular action also helps.
Name the layers of each kind of blood vessel from outermost to innermost layer.
Artery: outer, muscle, elastic, inner, endothelium
Vein: outer, muscle, inner, endothelium (has valves as well)
Capillary: Endothelium
Circulation of blood:
-Blood deficient in oxygen flows through ___ on the way to ___. Why is blood oxygen-poor?
-Oxygen-poor blood enters ___ side of the heart and travels through to ___. What is this?
-Arteries continue dividing within the lungs, finally reaching ___.
-What is unusual about the pulmonary artery?
-Venae cavae (2 large veins); capillaries; heart; because oxygen left blood and entered body at tissue capillaries
-right; pulmonary artery (vessel that divides in two - - one branch leading to left lung and the other leading to the right lung)
-lung capillaries
-only artery in the body that carries blood deficient in oxygen
Arrhythmias: What is it?
Abnormal heart rhythms (dysrhthmias). They are problems with the conduction or electrical system of the heart. Ex's = heart block, flutter, and fibrillation.
Heart block (atrioventricular block): What is it?
Failure of proper conduction of impulses through the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His). Damage to the SA node may cause impulses to be too weak to activate AV node and impulses fail to reach ventricles. 2 types = partial heart block (failure occurs only occasionally and heart misses beat in rhythm at regular intervals) and complete heart block (no impulses reach AV node from SA node and ventricles contract slower than atria and aren't coordinated.)
Flutter: What is it? What individuals may it occur in?
Rapid but regular contractions of atria or ventricles. Can occur in patients with heart disease. Rhythm may reach up to 300 beats per minute.
Fibrillation: What is it? What are treatments? What is a cardiac arrest? Palpitations?
Rapid, random, ineffectual, and irregular contractions of heart (350 beats or more per minute). Defibrillator is used. Electric shock stops heart and reverses its abnormal rhythm. Also an implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD) can be implanted to sense arrhythmias and correct them. Cardiac arrest = sudden stoppage of heart movement caused by heart block or fibrillation. Palpitations = uncomfortable sensations in chest. Caused by premature atrial or ventricular contractions.
Congenital heart disease: What is it?
Abnormalities in heart at birth.
Coarctation of the aorta (CoA): What is it? Treatment?
Narrowing (coarctation) of aorta. Treatment = removal of constricted area and end-to-end anastomosis of aortic segments.
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA): What is it?
Small duct between aorta and pulmonary artery which normally closes soon after birth remains open. Means that oxygenated blood flows from aorta to pulmonary artery. Occurs mostly in females. Treatment = close ductus arteriosus.
Septal defects: Def? Treatment?
Small holes in septa between atria or ventricles. Can be closed while using a heart-lung machine. Machine is connected to patient and relieves of pumping and oxygenation during heart surgery.
Congestive heart failure (CHF): What is this? Treatment? Cause?
Heart is unable to pump required amount of blood (more blood enters heart from veins than leaves through arteries). Blood accumulates in lungs causing pulmonary edema. Most common cause = high blood pressure and coronary artery disease. Therapy = lowering dietary intake of sodium and diuretics. A left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is a booster pump implanted to help with pumping blood out of heart to all parts of body.
Coronary artery disease (CAD): What is it? What happens to lead to other problems? Treatment?
Disease of arteries surrounding heart. Usually result of atherosclerosis (deposit of fatty compounds on inner lining of arteries). Plaque first causes plugging of artery. Lining of artery may rupture leading to thrombotic occlusion. Blood flow is decreased leading to death of myocardium. Leads to myocardium infarction. Drugs are given or surgery is done to improve blood flow.
Atherosclerosis?
Deposit of fatty compounds on inner lining of coronary arteries. Plaque collects.