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115 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
aque/o
water
blephar/o
eyelid
conjunctiv/o
conjunctiva (to join together)
corne/o; kerat/o
cornea
cycl/o
circle, ciliary body
ir/o; irid/o
colored circle, iris
lacrim/o; dacry/o
tear
ocul/o; opthalm/o; opt/o
eye
phac/o; phak/o
lens (lentil)
phot/o
light
presby/o
old age
retin/o
retina
scler/o
hard or sclera
vitre/o
glassy
-opia
condition of vision
anterior chamber
fluid-filled space between the cornea and iris
aqueous humor
watery liquid secreted by the ciliary processes that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye and provides nourishment for the cornea, iris, and lens
canal of Schlemm
duct in the anterior chamber that carries filtered aqueous humor to the veins and bloodstream
choroid
vascular layer beneath the sclera that provides nourishment to the outer portion of the retina
ciliary body
ring of tissue behind the peripheral iris that is composed of ciliary muscle and ciliary processes
ciliary muscle
smooth muscle portion of the ciliary body, which contracts to assist in near vision
ciliary processes
epithelial tissue folds on the inner surface of the ciliary body that secrete aqueous humor
conjunctiva
mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and outer surface of the eyeball
cornea
transparent, anterior part of the eyeball covering the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber that functions to refract (bend) light to focus a visual image
eyelid; palpebra
movable, protective fold that opens and closes, covering the eye
fovea centralis
pinpoint depression in the center of the macula lutea that is the site of sharpest vision
fundus
interior surface of the eyeball, including the retina, optic disk, macula, and posterior pole (curvature at the back of the eye)
glands of Zeis
oil glands surrounding the eyelashes
meibomain glands
oil glands located along the rim of the eyelids
iris
colored circle; colored part of the eye located behind the cornea that contracts and dilates to regulate light passing through the pupil
lacrimal gland
gland located in the upper outer region above the eyeball that secretes tears
lacrimal ducts
tubes that carry tears to the lacrimal sac
lacrimal sac
structure that collects tears before emptying into the nasolactimal duct
lens
transparent structure behind the pupil that bends and focuses light rays on the retina
lens capsule
capsule that encloses the lens
macula lutea; macula
central region of the retina; responsible for central vision; yellow pigment provides its color
nasolacrimal duct
passageway for tears from the lacrimal sac into the nose
optic disk
exit site of retinal nerve fibers as well as entrance point for retinal arteries and exit point for retinal veins
optic nerve
nerve responsible for carrying impulses for the sense of sight from the retina to the brain
posterior chamber
space between the back of the iris and the front of the vitreous chamber; filled with aqueous humor
pupil
black, circular opening in the center of the iris through which light passes as it enters the eye
retina
innermost layer that perceives and transmits light to the optic nerve
cones
cone-shaped cells within the retina that are color sensitive and respond to bright light
rods
rod-shaped cells within the retina that respond to dim light
sclera
tough, fibrous, white outer coat extending from the cornea to the optic nerve
trabecular meshwork
mesh-like structure in the anterior chamber that filters the aqueous humor as it flows into the canal of Schlemm
vitreous
jelly-like mass filling the inner chamber between the lens and retina that gives bulk to the eye
asthenopia
eyestrain
blepharospasm
involuntary contraction of the muscles surrounding the eye causing uncontrolled blinking and lid squeezing
diplopia
double vision
exophthalmos/exophthalmus
abnormal protrusion of one or both eyeballs
lacrimation
secretion of tears
nystagmus
involuntary, rapid, oscillating movement of the eyeball
photophobia
extreme sensitivity to, and distortion from, light
scotoma
blind spot in vision
refractive errors
defects in the bending of light as it enters the eye, causing an improper focus on the retina
astigmatism
distorted vision caused by an oblong or cylindrical curvature of the lens or cornea that prevents light rays from coming to a single focus on the retina
hyperopia
farsightedness; difficulty seeing close objects when light rays are focused on a point behind the retina
myopia
nearsightedness; difficulty seeing distant objects when light rays are focused on a point in front of the retina
presbyopia
impaired vision caused by old age or loss of accommodation
accommodation
ability of the eye to adjust focus on near objects
amblyopia
decreased vision in early life because of a functional defect that can occur as a result of strabismus, refractive errors (when one eye is more nearsighted, farsighted, or astigmatic than the other) or trauma; usually occurs in one eye; also known as lazy eye
aphakia
absence of the lens, usually after cataract extraction
blepharitis
inflammation of the eyelid
blepharochalasis; dermatochalasis
baggy eyelid; overabundance and loss of skin elasticity on the upper eyelid causing a fold of skin to hang down over the edge of the eyelid when the eyes are open
blepharoptosis; ptosis
drooping of the eyelid; usually caused by paralysis
chalazion
chronic nodular inflammation of a meibomian gland, usually the result of a blocked duct; commonly presents as a swelling on the upper of lower eyelid
cataract
opaque clouding of the lens causing decreased vision
conjunctivitis
pinkeye; inflammation of the conjunctiva
dacryoadenitis
inflammation of the lacrimal gland
dacryocystitis
inflammation of the tear sac
diabetic retinopathy
disease of the retina in diabetics characterized by capillary leakage, bleeding, and new vessel formation (neovascularization) leading to scarring and loss of vision
ectropion
outward turning of the rim of the eyelid
entropion
inward turning of the rim of the eyelid
epiphora
abnormal overflow of tears caused by blockage of the lacrimal duct
glaucoma
group of diseases of the eye characterized by increased intraocular pressure that results in damage to the optic nerve, producing defects in vision
hordeolum
sty; an acute infection of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid
iritis
inflammation of the iris
keratitis
inflammation of the cornea
macular degeneration
breakdown or thinning of the tissues in the macula, resulting in partial or complete loss of central vision
pseudophakia
an eye in which the natural lens is replaced with an artificial lens implant
pterygium
fibrous, wing-shaped growth of conjunctival tissue that extends onto the cornea, developing most commonly from prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light
retinal detachment
separation of the retina from the underlying epithelium, disrupting vision and resulting in blindness if not repaired surgically
retinitis
inflammation of the retina
strabismus; heterotropia
a condition of eye misalignment caused by intraocular muscle imbalance
esotropia
right or left eye deviates inward, toward nose
exotropia
right or left eye deviates outward, away from nose
scleritis
inflammation of the sclera
trichiasis
misdirected eyelashes that rub on the conjunctiva or cornea
distance visual acuity
measure of the ability to see the details and shape of identifiable objects from a specified distance, usually from 20 feet (6 meters); normal distance visual acuity is 20/20 (6/6)
fluorescein angiography
visualization and photography of retinal and choroidal vessels made as fluorescein dye, which is injected into a vein, circulates through the eye
ophthalmoscopy
use of an ophthalmoscope to view the interior of the eye
slit lamp biomicroscopy
use of a tabletop microscope used to examine the eye, especially the cornea, lend, fluid, and membranes
sonography
use of high-frequency sound waves to detect pathology within the eye
tonometry
use of a tonometer to measure introcular pressure, which is elevated in glaucoma
blepharoplasty
surgical removal of an eyelid
cataract extraction
excision of a cloudy lens from the eye
cryoretinopezy; cryopexy
use of intense cold to seal a hole or tear in the retina; used to treat retinal detachment
dacryocystectomy
excision of a lacrimal sac
enucleation
excision of an eyeball
iridectomy
excision of a portion of iris tissue
iridotomy
incision into the iris (usually with a laser) to allow drainage of aqueous humor from the posterior to anterior chamber; used to treat a type of glaucoma
keratoplasty
corneal transplantation; replacement of a diseased or scarred cornea with a healthy one from a matched donor
laser surgery
use of a laser to make incisions or destroy tissues; used to create fluid passages or obliterate tumors, aneurysms, etc.
laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)
a technique using the excimer laser to reshape the surface of the cornea to correct refractive error
intraocular lens implant (IOL)
implantation of an artificial lens to replace a defective natural lens
phacoemulsification
use of ultrasound to shatter and break up a cataract, with aspiration and removal
scleral buckling
surgery to treat retinal detachment by placing a band of silicone around the sclera to cinch it toward the middle of the eye and relieve pull on the retina; often combined with other techniques to seal retinal tears
contact lens
small, plastic, curved disk with optical correction that fits over the cornea; used to correct refractive errors
eye instillation
introduction of a mediated solution in the eye, usually administered by a drop (gt) or drops (gtt) in the affected eye or eyes
eye irrigation
washing of the eye with water or other fluid
antibiotic ophthalmic solution
antimicrobial agent in solution; used to treat bacterial infections
cycloplegic
agent that paralyzes the ciliary muscle and the powers of accommodation; commonly used in pediatric eye examinations
mydriatic
agent that causes dilation of the pupil; used for certain eye examinations
miotic
agent that causes the pupil to contract