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96 Cards in this Set

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Respiratory System
Responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. - cells get required oxygen and get rid of waste product.
Repiration
one inspiration and one expiration.
normal respiration rate
10 -20 per minute
nasal cavity
where the air enters
septum
divides the nasal cavity into right and left sides
olfactory neurons
receptors for smell
cilia
thin hairs that filter particles from the air, entering the nasal cavity
pharynx
passageway for air and food
also known as throat
nasopharynx
in back of the nose
passageway for air
contains the pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids)
oropharynx
in back of the mouth
passageway for air and food
contains the palatine tonsils (tonsils)
larynopharynx
above the larynx
passageway for air and food
larynx
voicebox responsible for sound
epiglottis
"lid" over the larynx that prevents food and liquid from getting into the lungs
trachea
windpipe
bronchi
two branches of the trachea
bronchioles
small bronchus
bronchial tree
all of the divisions of bronchi
alveoli
air sacs at the end of the bronchioles
where the actual exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
lobes
the divisions if the lungs
3 lobes
right lung
2 lobes
left lung
apex
top of the lung
hilum
middle of the lung
where the activity is (blood
vessels, nerves, etc)
base
bottom of the lung
mediastinum
space between the lungs where the heart, aorta, esophagus and bronchi are
pleura
a membrane that surrounds the lung and also lines the thoracic cavity
pleura cavity
the space between the two layers of the pleura membrane has lubricating fluid
diaphragm
very important for respiration/breathing
phrenic nerve
causes the diaphragm to move
COPD
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - includes asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema
COLD
chronic obstructive lung disease also called COPD
asthma
spasms in the bronchial passage
paroxysmal
sudden and violent (spasms)
mucolytics
medications that open up the bronchi, breaking down mucus so it is couged up more easily
bronchodilators
medications that open up the bronchi passage, by dialating the bronchi
chronic bronchitis
inflammation of bronochi
expectorants
medications to help remove mucus from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea
emphysema
alveoli lose elasticity, - air sacs expand but can not contract to the original size
orthopnea
patients breath easier when sitting or standing (straight breathing)
influenza
flu
pleural effusions
excess fluid in the peural cavity
TB
tuberculosis
bronchopneumonia
any inflammatory disease of the lungs
lobar pneumonia
affects only a lobe of the lung
double pneumonia
affects both the right and left lungs
cystic fibrosis
hereditary disorder which is systemic (whole system/body) especially the lungs, pancreas, and digestive tract
viscous
extremely thick (i.e. mucus)
RDS
Respiratory distress syndrome - absence or impairment in the reproduction of surfactant (wetting agent) which keeps the lungs from collapsing during exhalation
IRDS
infant respiratory distress syndrome - use to be called hyaline membrane disease
ARDS
Adult respiratory distress syndrome
croup
viral infection in young children with symptoms of hoarseness an barking cough
pneumothorax
accumulation of air in the pleural space which causes the lung to collapse
atelectasis
incomplete dilation/collapsed lung
coryza
common cold
epistaxis
nose bleed
pertussis
whooping cough
pleurisy; pleuritis
inflammation of pleura
pneumoconiosis; anthracosis; asbestosis
dust in the lungs (coal dust or asbestos)
pulmonary edema
excess fluid in the lungs
pulmonary embolus
floating clot in the lung
SIDS
Sudden infant death syndrome - also known as crib death
tuberculin test; Mantoux
diagnose TB
antiussives
medication to stop coughing
decongestants
medications to clear the nasal area
CO2
carbon dioxide
CPR
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CXR
chest x-ray
O2
Oxygen
SOB
shortness of breath
T&A
tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy
TPR
temperature, pulse, and respiration
URI
upper respiratory infection
upper respiratory tract
nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, and trachea
lower respiratory tract
bronchial tree and lungs
sinus
air filled cavity in a bone
agonal breathing
describes breathing near death
asphyxiation/suffocation
interruption of breathing, could result in unconsciousness or death
cyanosis
abnormal condition of blue - skin is blue because of the lack of oxygen
normal aspiration
removing fluids or gases from a body cavity by suction (during surgery)
abnormal aspiration
inhaling a substabce (i.e. food) into the upper respiratory tract
hyperventilation
abnormally fast deep breathing - the cells will have decreased amount of co2
asthma, and anxiety can cause
pharyngitis
inflammation of the throat
"sore throat"
dysphonia
bad voice - "hoarseness"
tracheotomy
incision into the trachea - emergency procedure to get air into the airway
trachostomy
new opening into the trachea creating a new hole into the trachea so a tube can be inserted for air passage and removal of secretions
stoma
hole/opening on the body
patent
open (airways are patent)
ventilator
mechanical device used to assist with or substitute for breathing
auscultation
listening to sounds within the body, with a stethoscope
percussion
tapping and listening to see if there is a probem in the body
solid = dull sound
air filled (lungs) = hollow sound
rales
abnormal crackling sounds heard during inspiration. caused by fluid inside the bronchus
rhonchi
abnormal wheezing sounds heard during expirartion.
caused by narrowed bronchus, like asthma
sleep apnea
person quits breathing during sleep
legionnaires disease
type of pneumonia
RSV
respiratory syncytial virus
affects babies and small children winter or spring
SARS
severe acute respiratory syndrome
flu like symptoms prevelant in china