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68 Cards in this Set

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Arteries
carry blood that is high in oxygen from heart to tissues and organs
Exception Pulmonary artery
Pulmonary artery
carries blood low in oxygen
arterioles
little arteries
aorta
largest artery
coronary arteries
branch from the aorta, provides the myocardium with blood.
veins
carry blood that is low in oxygen to the heart
exception pulmonary vein
pulmonary vein
carries blood that is high in oxygen
venules
little veins
superior vena cava
large vein that brings blood low in oxygen from the upper part of the body to the heart.
inferior vena cava
large vein that brings blood low in oxygen from the lower part of the body to the heart
capillaries
join the arterial system with the venous system
pericardium
tissue around the heart
3 layers of the heart
endocardium
myocardium
epicardium
endocardium
inner layer of the heart lines the 4 chambers and its valves
myocardium
middle layer of the heart, muscular layer of the heart, known as heart muscle
epicardium
outer layer of the heart
atria
two upper chambers of the heart. receives blood
ventricles
two lower chambers of the heart. Pumps blood
Septum
the wall that divides the right and left side of the heart
valves
like doors once the blood passes through the valve closes so that the blood can not go back
tricuspid valve
between the right atrium and the right ventricle
pulmonary semilunar valve
between right ventricle and pulmonary artery
bicuspid/mitral valve
between the left atrium and the left ventricle
aortic semilunar valve
between the left ventricle and aorta
SA
sinoatrial node or pacemaker. located in the right atrium
ECG/EKG
electrocardiogram - record of electricity of the heart
P wave
the contraction of the atria
QRS wave
the contraction of the ventricles
T wave
recovery of the ventricles
Blood pressure
the amount of force the blood is putting on the walls of the atrteries
systole
the top number of blood pressure when the blood is forced out of the heart
diastole
the bottom number of blood pressure when the ventricles are filling with blood
hypertension
high blood pressure
hypotension
low blood pressure
atherosclerosis
hardening of plaque - plaque build up making the lumen smaller = less blood to tissue
lumen
opening of the artery
thrombosis
blood clots that totally block a vessel
occlusion
blocking a vessel
embolus
a thrombus that breaks loose and travels through the circulation sytem
aneurysm
bulge in the vessel wall - could rupture
endarterectomy
removal of the innermost layer of the artery. mostly in neck(carotid)and leg(femoral)used to remove plaque build up
Coronary artery disease
any disease that keeps coronary arteries from delivering enough blood to the heart muscle
Ischemia
results from not enough oxygen getting to the heart muscle
angina pectoris
chest pain
dyspnea
difficulty breathing
PTCA
baloon surgery or angioplasty. a stent (mostly steel) is placed in the artery to keep plaque compressed
atherectomy
a catheter removes the plaque
Coronary or bipass surgery
vein removed from the leg and used to bypass a clogged artery.
CABG
coronary artery bypass graft - the vein removed from the leg
MI
a part of the heart dies
Symptoms: diaphoresis, pallor, and dyspnea
Sinus rhythm
normal rhythm
arrhythmia
without normal rhythm
tachycardia
too fast
bradycardia
too slow
cardiac arrest
heart stops
cardiomyopathy
disease of the heart muscle
congestive heart failure
heart is unable to keep up the workload
fibrillation
heart is fluttering beating way to fast
defibrillators
used to shock the heart back to normal rhythm
cardiac catheterization
diagnostic procedure to find clogged arteries
catheter is put into the artery (through the leg)
echocardiography
uses sound waves to look for structure (valve) problems
doppler
uses sound waves to look for blood flow problems
TEE
more invasive than an echo tube down throat
Holter monitor test
portable ECG or EKG
stress test
excerise to test how much stress the heart can stand.
Thallium stress test
stress test with picture
TMR
blasting holes into the heart muscle with a laser (to get blood into the heart)
EECP
cuffs on the legs, blood is forced into the vessels in between beats of the heart, to increase blood flow circulation