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462 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a-
Without
ab-
away from
-ac
pertaining to
acr-
extremities
ad-
towards
adeno-
Gland
adren-
adrenal gland
agglutin
clumping, sticking together
-al
pertaining to
alb-
white
-algia
pain
an-
anus
ana-
up, apart, backward
andr-
male
angi-
vessel (blood)
ante-
before, forward
-apheresis
removal
apo-
off, away
-ar
pertaining to
-arche
beginning
aterio-
artery
arthr-
joint
articulo-
joint
-ary
pertaining to
-ase
enzyme
-asthenia
lack of strength
-ation
process, condition
audi-
hearing
aur-
ear
auto-
self or own
baro-
weight
baro-
weight
bi-
2
bio-
life
-blast
embryonic, immature
blephar-
eyelid
brachi-
arm
brady-
slow
bronch-
bronchial tube
bucc-
cheeck
capn-
CO2
carcin-
cancer
cardi-
heart
caus-
burn, burning
cec-
cecum (1st part of colon)
-cele
hernia
cephal-
head
cerebro-
cerebrum (largest part of brain)
cervic-
neck
-chalasia
relaxation
cheil-
lip
chemo-
drug, chemical
-chezia
defecation, stools
chol-
bile, gall
cholecyst-
gallbladder
chondro-
cartilage
-cide
killing
-clasis
to break
-clysis
to break
-coccus
berry-shaped bacteria
colp-
vagina
comi-
to care for
con-
with
contra-
against, opposite
corpor-
body
cortic-
cortex, outer region
cost-
rib
crani-
skull
-crit
to separate
cryo-
cold
crypt-
hidden
cutane-
skin
cyan-
blue
cyclo-
ciliary body (eye muscle)
cysto-
urinary bladder
-cyt(e)
cell
-cytosis
condition of cells
dacry-
tears
de-
lack of
derm-
skin
-desis
bind or tie together
dia-
complete, through
diaphor-
sweat
-dilation
widening, stretching
diplo-
double
dips-
thirst
dist-
far, distant
dorsi-
back
-dynia
pain
dys-
difficult or bad
ec-
out, outside
-ectasis
stretching, dilation
-ectomy
removal, excision, resection
-edema
swelling
-emisis
vomiting
-emia
blood condition
en- or endo-
within
epi-
above
erythem-
red
-esis
condition
-estro
female
etio-
cause
eu-
normal, good
exo-
away from
fasci-
membrane supporting muscles
femor-
femur (thigh bone)
-ferent
to carry
-fication
process of making
-fida
split
-form
resembling
fung-
fungus
galact-
milk
gastro-
stomach
-gen
producing, forming
-genesis
producing, forming
-genic
produced by
ger-
old age
gest-
pregnancy
-globin
protein
gluc-
glucose, sugar
-grade
to go
-gram
record (noun)
-graph
instrument for recording
-graphy
process of recording
gynec-
female
hem-
blood
hemi-
1/2
hepat-
liver
-hexia
habit
hist-
tissue
home(o)-
sameness
hydro-
water
hyper-
above, excessive
hypno-
sleep
hypo-
below, deficient
hystero-
uterus
-ia
condition
-iac
pertaining to
-icle
small
idio-
unknown
infra-
below, beneath
inter-
between
iso-
same, equal
-ism
process, condition
-itis
inflammation
-ium
structure, tisse
jaundo-
yellow
kal/i-
potassium
kerat-
horny, hard; cornea
-kinesia
movement
labi-
lip
lact-
milk
lapar-
abdominal wall, abdomen
lapse-
to slide, fall, sag
latero-
side
lepto-
thin
letho-
death
leuko-
white
lingu-
tongue
lipo-
fat
litho-
stone calculus
-lithiasis
condition of stones
lymphadeno-
lymph gland (node)
-lysis
breakdown, destruction
macro-
large
mal-
bad
-malacia
softening
mammo-
breast
mast-
breast
meato-
opening
medio-
middle
mega-
large
melano-
black
meso-
middle
meta-
change
micro-
small
mono-
one
morph-
shape, form
myelo-
bone marrow
myo-
muscle
myco-
fungus
myx-
mucous
narc-
numbness, sleep
naso-
nose
nat-
birth
natro-
sodium
necro-
death
nephro-
kidney
neuro-
nerve
noct-
night
nulli-
none
oculo-
eye
odonto-
tooth
odyn-
pain
-oid
resembling
-ole
small
-oligo
scanty
-oma
tumor, mass
onc-
tumor
-one
hormone
onycho-
nail (finger or toe)
-opia
vision
-opsy
view of
oro-
mouth
orch-
testis
-orexia
appetite
ortho-
straight
-ose
full of, pertaining to
-osis
condition of, usually abnormal
osteo-
bone
oto-
ear
ov-
egg
-oxia
oxygen
pachy-
heavy, thick
pan-
all
par-
other than, abnormal
para-
near, beside, abnormal, apart from
-para
to bear
-paresis
slight paralysis
-partum
birth
patho-
disease
-pathy
disease, emotion
ped-
foot, child
pend-
to hang
-penia
deficiency
-pepsia
digestion
per-
through
peri-
surrounding
-pexy
fixation, to put in place
phag-
to eat or swallow
-phasia
speech
-pheresis
removal
-plasia
development, formation
-plasty
surgical repair
-plegia
paralysis
-pnea
breathing
pneumo-
lung, air
pod-
foot
-poiesis
formation
poikil-
varied, irregular
-poly
many
post-
after, behind
pruirt-
itching
proxim-
near
pseudo-
false
-ptosis
droop, prolapse
-ptysis
spitting
pulmono-
lung
pyo-
pus
pyel-
renal pelvis
pyro-
fever, fire
quardri-
4
radio-
x-rays
re-
again, backwards
recto-
rectum
reno-
kidney
retro-
behind, backward
rhino-
nose
-rrhage
bursting forth of blood
-rrhaphy
suture
-rrhea
flow, discharge
-rrhexis
rupture
salpingo-
tube (esp. uterine or Eustachian)
sarco-
flesh (connective tissue)
-schisis
to split
-sclerosis
hardening
-scope
instrument for visual exam
-scopy
visual exam
secto-
to cut
semi-
1/2
seps-
infection
-sis
state of, condition
sphygm-
pulse
spiro-
to breathe
spondylo-
vertebra
-stalsis
tightening, stricture
sterno-
chest
-sthenia
strength
stetho-
chest
-stitial
to set, position
-stomy
new opening (to form a mouth)
sub-
under, below
supra-
above, upper
syn-
together, with
syncope
fainting
tachy-
fast
telo-
complete
tetra-
4
theo-
put, place
theco-
sheath
-therapy
treatment
therm
heat
thoraco
chest
thrombo-
clot
-thymia
mind (condition of)
-tic
pertaining to
tomo-
to cut
-tome
instrument to cut
-tomy
process of cutting
tox0
poison
trach-
trachea, windpipe
trans-
across, through
-tresia
opening
tri-
3
trich-
hair
-tripsy
to crush
-trophy
development
-ule
little, small
vaso-
vessel
ventro-
belly side
-verse
to turn
viscero-
internal organs
xantho-
yellow
xero-
dry
zo-
animal life
Skin as 3 layers
Epidermis (outer most layer)
Dermis
Subvutaneous tissue (deepest, contains fat layer)
Melanin
gives skin its color (melanocytes)
Collagen
tough, figrous tissue that gives skin its elasticity
Keratin
hard protein found in epidermis, hair fibers, and nails
Onycholysis
loosening of nail from its plate (due to trauma or infection)
Macule
discolored, flat lesion
Vesicle
blister
Wheal
smooth, elevated, edematous lesion (redder or paler than surrounding skin), hives
Pruritus
itching (make sure you can spell this one!)
Nevus
mole
Urticaria
hives (allergic reaction)
Xeroderma
dry skin
Psoriasis
chronic dermatitis, characterized by itchy, scaly, red patches covered by silvery gray scales
Tinea
Fungal infection of the skin
Osteocytes
bone cells
Ossification
bone formation
Diaphysis
middle region of long bone
Epiphysis
ends of long bone
Fossa
shallow cavity in a bone
Foramen
shallow cavity in a bone
Cranial bones
frontal (front), temporal (above ears), parietal (top of head), occipital (back)
Mandible
jaw
Zygomatic
high cheek bones
Vertebrae
7 cervical (neck), 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar (lower back), sacrum, coccyx (tailbone
Clavicle
collar bone
Scapula
shoulder blade
Sternum
brestbone
Humerus
upper arm bone
Olecranon
elbow bone
Ulna
medial lower arm bone
Radius
lateral lower arm bone (thumb side)
Carpala
wrist bones
Tarsals
ankle bones
Femur
thigh bone
Patella
knee bone
Tibia
lower leg bone
bone on anterior side
larger of 2 lower leg bones
Fibula
lower leg bone (smaller one/ distal end forms malleolus- bony, outer ankle bone)
Osteitis
inflammation of bone
Arthritis
inflammation of joint
Flexion
bending of a joint (decrease the angle)
Extension
straightening a joint (increase angle of joint)
Pronation
turn palm down or towars posterior
Supination
turn palm up or towards anterior
Rotation
move in a circular motion/in head rotaiont is side to side
"Rheumato"
literally means watery flow.
Rheumatoid arthritis
chronic disease in which joints become inflamed and painful, characterized by deformaties and ankylosis (calcifies and stiffens)
Osteomalacia
softening of bone
Arthroscopy
process of visually examining the inside of a joint
Achondroplasia
disorder of growth of cartilage at the epiphyses of long bones & skull, resulting in dwarfism
Ankylosing spondylitis
A chronic degenerative inflammatory disease that affects the spine & adjacent structures; commonly progresses to fusion of involved joints.
Osteosarcoma
malignant bony tumor
Osteopenia
deficiency or decrease of bone density
Scoliosis
lateral curvature of spine
Small intestines
Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
Large intestines
Cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon
Hematochezia
inflammation of the gallbladder
Cholelithiasis
presence or development of gallstones in common bile duct or gallbladder
Cholecystectomy
surgical removal of the gallbladder
Lipase
a pancreatic enzyme that breaks down fats (lipids)
-plegia
paralysis (hemiplegia- paralysis of 1 side of body)
Paresis
slight paralysis
Asthenia
muscle weakness
Apraxia
inability to perform purposeful movements or to use objects appropriately
Ataxia
an abnormal condition characterized by failure of muscle coordination
Aphasia
a speech disorder marked by loss or defect in ability to speak, write, or comprehend spoken or written language
Aphagia
the inability or refusal to swallow
Syncope
fainting or sudden loss of consciousness caused by lack of blood supply to cerebrum
Bell's Palsy
unilateral, usually temporary, facial paralysis of sudden onset, caused by a lesion of the facial nerve and resulting in facial distortion
Myathenia Gravis
a disorder of neuromuscular function characterized by muscle weakness, espicially of the throat and face, and chronic fatigue, caused by the presence of antibodies to acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction
Cerebral angiography
X-rays taken of blood vessels of brain with use of contrast medium injected into artery
Computed Tomography
X-rays used to compuse computerized cross-sectional picture. May use contrast medium, which leaks thru blood-brain barrier into brain tissue
MRI
(Magnetic Resonance Imagining)
use of magnetic and radio waves to create images.
PET
(Positron Emission Imaging)
radioactive chemical is injected IV with glucose, which gives off positrons. radioacitve material is recorded on screen, shows how brain uses glucose & thus shows brain function
EEG
(Electroencephalogram)
reocrd of electrical activity of the brain
Cornea
covers pupil, refracts light
Lens
refracts light rays, shape changed by ciliary body muscles to adjust vision for near or far (accommodation)
Retina
nerve layer in posterior of eye, contains rods and cones (where light energy causes chemical reaction to stimulate nervous impules
Astigmatism
defective curvature of conea or lens, which distorts image
Hyperopia
farsightedness
Myopia
nearsightedness
Presbyopia
impairment of vision due to aging
Exotropia
outward turning of the eye
Esotropia
inward turning of the eye
Cataract
clouding of lens, causing decreasing vision
Glaucoma
increased intraocular pressure, results in damage to reitna & optic nerve
Keratoplasty
corneal transplant
Pinna
outer ear
Ear has 3 bones (occicles)
Malleus; Incus; Stapes
Eustachian tube
connects middle ear to pharynx
Tinnitus
ringing in the ears
Meniere Disease
disorder of labyrinth of inner ear marked by elevated endolymph pressure within chochlea & semicircular canals, resulting in vertigo, sensitivity to loud noises, & gradual loss of hearing
Oxytocin
produced by posterior pitutiary, stimulates contractions of uterus during labor
Addison's Disease
a decrease in production of mineralcorticoids and glucocorticoids from adrenal cortex; characterized by weakness, loss of appetite, hypotension, and hyperpigmentation of the skin
Cushing's Syndrome
an excess secretion of cortisol from adrenal cortex, characterized by round "moon" face, pads of fat on the chest and abdomen, abnormally pigmented skin, and muscular atrophy
Diabetes Mellitus
lack of insulin secretion or resistance of insulin in promoting sugar, starch, & fat metabolism in cells
Diabetes Insipidus
condition of producing too little ADH from posterior pituitary, resulting in kidneys failing to reabsorb needed water and salts (resulting in polyuria)
Polyphagia
increased appetite, over eating
Polydipsia
chronic excessive thirst and fluid intake
Immue
means protect
Natural immunity
genetic predisposition
Acquired immunity
body developes or recieves immunity
Active
(acquired immunity)
body actually preduces the antibodies, by having the disease or receiving a vaccination that stimualtes antibody production
Passive
(acquired immunity)
given actual antibodies produced from another source
Aneurysm
local widening of a blood vessel (ballooning); wall weakened due to thinning
Thrombus
blood clot attached to interior wall of blood vessel
Embolus
a mass, such as a blood clot or foreign object that circulates in the bloodstream until it becomes lodged in a vessel too small to allow it to pass
Tachycardia
rapid heart rate (> 100 bpm)
Angia Pectoris
epidsode of chest pain resulting from temporary difference between supply & demand of oxygen to the heart muscle
Myocardial Ischemia
a deficiency of blood to the heart muscle, usually caused by constriction or obstrustion of a coronary blood vessel and often marked by pain and cardiac dysfunction
Myocardial infarction
necrosis of a portion of the myocardial muscle due to obstruction in a coronary artery caused by atherosclerosis or thrombus or spasm (MI/heart attack)
Coronary Angiography
dye injected into bloodstream or heart chamber & x-rays taken of heart & large blood vessels in chest
Erythrocytes
red blood cells, contain hemoglobin (carry O2/CO2)
Leukocytes
white blood cells
Granulocytes: basophils, eosinophils, & neutrophils
Agranulocytes: monocytes & lymphocytes
Thrombocytes
platelets, blood clotting
Polycythemia vera
general increase in RBC's, causing viscous (sticky) consistency
Heochromatosis
excessive deposits of iron throughout body, giving skin brown hue
White Blood Cell Differantial
determines the different types of leukocytes
Hematocrit
percentage of erythrocytes in a volume of blood
Prothrombin Time
test of the ability of the blood to clot (used for patients on aticoagulants)
Dyspnea
labored or difficult breathing
Orthopnea
dyspnea in which a person must sit upright in order to breathe comfortably
Atelectasis
incomplete expansion of alveoli; airless portion of a lung
Bronchiectasis
chronic dilation of bronchi secondary to infection that involves lower portion of lung
Epistaxis
nosebleed
Auscultation
listening to sounds within the body for purpose of evaluating the condition of organs
Percussion
tapping a body part to determine the density of the underlying parts
Bronchoscopy
process of visually examining the bronchial tubes
Gynecomastia
Excessive growth of the mammary glands in men, usually during puberty; usually caused by metabolic errors that result in accumulation of estrogen, deficiency of testosterone.
Hydrocele
swelling in the scrotum due to fluid in the scrotal sac
Cryptorchism
undescended testicle
Orchitis
inflammation of testes
Varicocle
enlarged, dilated veins near testicle; associated with oligospermia (low sperm count)
Dysmenorrhea
painful menstrual bleeding
Amenorrhea
absence of menses for 6 months or longer than 3 of the patient's normal cycles
Oligomenorrhea
abnormally light or infrequent menstrual flow
Endometriosis
endometrial tissue found in abnormal locations; can cause scar tissue, dysmenorrheal, and infertility
Leiomyomas
also called fibroids; benign growths of fibrous tisse within uterine wall; can cause pain, metorrhagia (bleeding between menses), & menorrhagia (abnormally lonng or heavy menstrual periods)
Kidneys
retroperitoneal (dorsal to abdominal cavity)
Oliguria
scanty urine production
Pyuria
pus in urine
Nocturia
night time urination
Analgesics
pain killers
Diuretics
water pills (increase urination by decreasing reabsorption)
Antipyretics
medications that reduce fevers
ac
before meals
pc
after meals
NPO
nothing by mouth