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417 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
acrodermatitis
Inflammation of the skin extremities
anuria
Absence of urine
cardiac
Pertaining to the heart
cardialgia
Heart pain
cardiocentesis
Surgical puncture of the heart
cardiologist
One who speacializes in the diseases and disorders of the heart
cardiology
The study of the heart
cardiomegaly
Enlargement of the heart
carditis
Inflammation of the heart
dermatitis
Inflammation of the skin
dermatologist
One who speacilizes in the diseases and disorders of the heart
dermatology
The study of the skin
dermatosis
Any condition of the skin
dysuria
Painful of difficult urination
endocardium
Within the heart or the lining of the heart
hypodermic
Pertaining to under the skin
intracardiac
Pertaining to within the heart like the chambers
pericardial
Pertaining to around the heart
polyuria
Excessive amount of urine
a
without, not
ab
from, away from
ad
toward, increase
alb
white
albin
white
ambi
both, both sides
an
without, not
ante
before, in front
anti
against
auto
self
bi
two, double
bio
life
brady
slow
chlor
green
circum
around
cirrh
yellow
con
together, with
contra
against
cyan
blue
de
down, from
dia
through
dis
free of, undo
dys
bad, difficult, painful
ecto
outside
endo
within, inner
eosin
red, rosy
epi
upon, over
erythr
red
eu
well, easily
ex
out, away from
extra
outside, beyond
glauc
gray
hemi
half
hetero
different
homeo
likeness
homo
same
hydro
water
hyp
under, below
hyper
excessive
hypo
under, below
idio
individual
im
not
in
inside
infra
beneath, below
inter
between
intra
within
jaund
yellow
juxta
near
leuk
white
melan
black
meso
middle
meta
beyond, after
milli
one-thousandth
mono
one
multi
many
non
not
pan
all
para
near, beside
per
through
peri
around
poli
gray
poly
many, much
post
after
pre
before
primi
first
pseudo
false
purpur
purple
quadri
four
retro
backward
rube
red
semi
half
sub
under
supra
above
sym
joined
syn
joined
tachy
rapid
trans
across
tri
three
ultra
beyond
uni
one
xanth
yellow
a (suffix)
noun ending
ac (suffix)
pertaining to
ad (suffix)
toward
al (suffix)
pertaining to
algesia (suffix)
sensitivity to pain
algia (suffix)
pain
ar (suffix)
pertaining to
ary (suffix)
pertaining to
ate (suffix)
something that...
blast (suffix)
embryonic stage of development
cele (suffix)
swelling or herniation
centesis (suffix)
surgical puncture
cide (suffix)
to kill
clasis (suffix)
crushing or breaking up
cyte (suffix)
cell
desis (suffix)
binding or surgical fusion
dynia (suffix)
pain
e (suffix)
noun ending
eal (suffix)
pertaining to
ectasia (suffix)
stretching or dilation
ectomy
surgical removal
emia
blood condition
er
one who
esis
condition of
gen
that which generates
genesis
generating
genic
pertaining to, formation
gram
record or picture
graph
an instument used to record
graphy
process of recording
gravida
pregnancy
ia
condition (noun ending)
ian
specialist
iasis
presence of an abnormal condition
iatric
relating to medicine, physicians or medical treatment
iatrician
one who treats
iatrist
one who treats
iatry
medical treatment, profession
ic
pertaining to
ical
pertaining to
ician
specialist in a field of study
ile
pertaining to
ion
action, process
ism
condition
ist
practitioner
itis
inflammation
ize
to make or combine with
lepsy
seizure, attack
lith
stone
ithiasis
presence or formation of stones
logy
the study of
logist
one who specializes in the study of
lysis
destruction or detachment
lytic
destruction
mania
a mental disorder or "madness"
megaly
enlargement
meter
an instument used to measure
metry
the process of measuring
oid
resembling
ole
small or little
oma
tumor
opia
visual condition
opsia
visual condition
ory
pertaining to
osis
condition of
ous
pertaining to
pathy
disease
penia
decrease in
pexy
surgical fixation
philia
attracted to
phobia
abnormal fear
plasia
formation or development
plasty
surgical repair
plegia
paralysis
pnea
breathing
ptosis
drooping ort prolapse
rrhagia
excessive flow
rraphy
suturing
rrhea
discharge
rrhexis
rupture
scope
an instument used to view
scopy
the process fo viewing with a scope
stasis
stopping or controlling
stomy
the surgical creation of a new opening
tic
pertaining to
tion
process of
tomy
incision into
tripsy
intential crushing
ula
small
ule
small one
um
a suffix that identifies sungular nouns
uria
a characteristic of urine
us
a suffix that identifies singular nouns
y
noun ending
cell membrane
Cell's outer covering that acts as a semipermable barrier that allows certain substances through and blocks others
nucleus
central controlling body of the cell
chromosomes
The nucleus is made up of these threadlike structures that control the functions of growth, repair and reporduction of the body
genes
The chromosomes contain these segments that transmit hereditary characteristics.
cytoplasm
A gel-like substnace containing cell organs called onaelles that carry out the essential functions of the cell.
mitochondria
An organelle that provides the energy needed by the cell to carry out essential functions.
lysomes
An organelle that contains various kinds of enzymes capable of breaking down all the main components of the cells.
anaplasia
A change in the structure and orientation of cells, charcacterized by a loss of differentiation and reversion to a more primitive form.
aplasia
A devvelopmental failure resulting in the absence of any organ or tissue.
dysplasia
Any abnormal development of tissues or organs.
hyperplasia
An increase in the number of sells of a body part.
hypoplasia
Incomplete or underdeveloped organ or tissue, ususally the result of a decrease in the number of cells.
neoplasia
The new and abnormal development of cells that may be beh=nign or malignant.
connective tissue
Supports and binds other body tissue and parts.
epithelial tissue
Covers the interanl and external organs of the body.
muscle tissue
Produces movment of the parts and organs of the body through the contraction and relaxation of fibers.
Sketal muscle
attached to the bone and responsible for the movment of the skeleton
smooth muscle
found in the walls of the hollow internal organs of the body
visceral muscle
Also called smooth muscle
Nervous tissue
transmits impulses thoughout the body, thereby activating, coordinating, and controlling the many functions of the body.
membrane
Thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity, or divides a space
abdominal membrane
Lines the abdominal wall
peritoneum
A membrane that is an extensive serous membrane that covers the entire abdominal wall of the body and is reflected over the contained viscera
histologist
A medical specialist in the study of tissues
cytology
The study of cells
planes
Imaginatry slices that help to identify the positon of various body parts within the body.
frontal plane
Any of the vertical planes that pass throught the body from the head to the feet, perpendicular to the sagittal and and dividing the body into the back and front protions.
transverse plan
Any of the planes that cuts across the body perpendicular to the sagittal and the frontal planes dividing the body into the superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions.
midsagital plane
The plane that divides the body strcucture into equal right and left portions
midline
The "line" created when the body is dvided into equal right and left halves
medial
toward midline
visceral
refers to the internal organs
Munroe's point
Found in region 9 surgeon's often use this as a point of entry for the abdominal puncture when performing laparoscopic surgery. Looking into the abdomen.
McBurney's Point
When tenderness is in this area, a physician might suspect appendicitis.
Thoracic cavity
Lungs, heart, aorta, esophagus, and trachea
Abdominal cavity
seperated from the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm. liver, gallbladder, spleen, stomach, pancreas, intestines, and kidneys.
Pelvic Cavity
Urinary bladder and reproductive organs. The space between the diaphragm and the groin.
Cranial cavity
contains the brain
Spinal cavity
Nerves of the spinal cord.
Superficial
Pertainingt o the surface of the body, or near the surface.
deep
Away from the surface
anterior
Front of the body or toward the belly of the body
posterior
back of the body
ventral
Pertaining to a postion toward the belly of the body: frontward: anterior
dorsal
Back or posterior
medial
toward the midline of the body
lateral
toward the side of the body
superior
above or upward toward the head
inferior
below or downward toward the tail or feet
cranial
pertaining to the head
caudal
pertaining to the tail
distal
Away from the or farthest from the trunk of the body
proximal
Toward or nearest to the trunk of the body
supine
Lying horizontally on the back
prone
Lying face down on the abdomen
supination
A movement that allows the palms of the body to turn upward and forward
pronation
A movement that allows the palms of the hands to turn downward and backwards
plantar
sole or bottom of the foot
dorsum
The back of. In the foot, the top.
anatomical position
The standard reference postion of the body as a whole
coccyx
The tailbone.
cranial
Pertaining to the skull
ribosomes
Cell organs that synthesize proteins
sacrum
The singular, traiangular shaped bone that results from the fusion of the five individual sacral bones of the child
system
Organs that work together to perform the many functions of the body as a whole
umbilicus
belly button
abdomin
abdomen
ana
not, without
anter
front
cervic
neck, cervix
coccyo
coccyx
crani
skull
ctyo
cell
dors
back
dys
bad, difficult, painful
epi
upon, over
later
side
lumbo
loins, lower back
medi
middle
nucle
nucleus
pelv
pelvis
plasm
living substance
poster
back
proxim
near
sacr
sacrum
some
a body of a specified sort
spin
spine
thorac
chest
umbilic
navel
ventr
belly, front side
vertebr
vertebra
viscer
internal organ
absence seizure
A small seizure inwhcih a sudden, temporary loss of consciousness, lasting only a few seconds
acetylcholine
A chemical substance in the body tissues that facilitates the transmission of nerve impulses from one nerve to another
afferent nerves
Transmitters of nerve impulses toward the central nervous system also called sensory nerves
agnosia
Loss of mental ability to understand sensory stimuli, such as sight sound or touch even though the organ itself is still working.
agraphia
The inability to convert one's thoughts into writing
alexia
The inability to understand written words
analgesia
Without sensitivity to pain
anethesia
Without feeling or sensation
aneurysm
A localized silation in the wall of an artery that expands with each pulsation of the artery; ususally caused by hypertension or artherosclerosis
aphasia
Inability to communicate through speech, writing, or signs because of an injury to or disease in certain areas of the brain.
apraxia
Inability to perform coordinated movements or use objects properly; not associated with sensory or motor impairment or paralysis
arachnoid membrane
The web-like middle layer of the three membranous layers surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
astrocyte
A star shaped neurological cell found in the central nervous system
astrocytoma
A tumor of the brain or spinal cord composed of astrocytes
ataxia
without muscular coordination
aura
the sensation an individual experiencesprior to the onset of a migraine headache or an epileptic seizure; it may be a sensation of light or warmth and may precede the attack by hours or only a few seconds.
autonomic nervous system
The part of the nervous system that regulates the involuntary vital functions of the body, such as the activities invloving the heart muscle, smooth muscles, ans the glands. It has two parts the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.
axon
The part of the nerbve cell that transports nerve impulses away from the nerve cell body
blood-brain barrier
A protective characteristic of the cappillary walls of the brain that prevents the passage of harmful chemicals to the brain or spinal fluid.
bradykinesia
Abnormally slow movement
Brudzinski's sign
A positive sign of mengitis. Invluntary flexion of the arm, hip, and knee when the patient's neck is passively flexed.
burr hole
A hole drilled into the skull using a form of a drill.
cauda equina
The lower end of the spinal cord and the roots of the spinal nerves that occupy the spinal canal below the level of the first lumbar vertebra; so named because it resembles a horse's tail.
causalgia
A semsation of acute burning pain along the path of a peripheral nerve, sometimes accompanied by erythema of the skin; due to injury of the perheral nerve fibers
causalgia
a sensation of an acute burning pain along the path of the peripheral nerve, sometimes accompanied by erythema of the skin
cell body
the part of the cell that contains the nucleus and the cytoplasm
central nervous system
one of the two main divisions of the nervous system, consisting of the brain and the spinal cord
cephalagia
pain in the head; headache
cerebellum
the part of the brain responsible for coordinating voluntary muscular movement; located behind the brain stem
cerebral concussion
a brief interruption of brain function, usually with a loss of consciousness lasting for few seconds.
This transient loss of consciousness is ususally caused by blunt trauma ( a blow) to the head
cerebral contusion
small scattered venous hemorrhages in the brain; better described as a "bruise" of the brain tissue occuring when the brain strikes the inner skull
cerebral cortex
the thin outer layer of nerve tissue, known as gray matter, that covers the surface of the cerebrum
cerebrospinal fluid
the fluid flowing through the brain ans around the spinal cord that protects them from physical blow or impact
cerebrum
the largest and uppermost part of the brain; it controls consciousness, memory, sensations, emotions and voluntary movements
Cheyne-Stokes respirations
an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by periods of apnea and followed by deep, rapid breathing
coma
a deep sleep in which the individual cannot be aroused and does not respond to external stimuli
comatose
pertains to being in a coma
contracture
A permanent shortening of a muscle causing a joint to remain in an abnormally flexed position, with resultant physical deformity
convolution
One of the many elevated folds of the surface of the cerebrum; also called a gyrus
craniotomy
a surgical incision into the cranium or skull
deficit
any deficiency or variation of the normal
dementia
a progressive, irreversible mental disorder in which the person has deteriorating memory, judgment, and ability to think.
demyelination
destruction of or removal of the myelin sheath that covers a nerve or nerve fiber
dendrite
a projection that extends from the nerve cell body
diencephalon
the part of the brain that consists of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and the pineal gland
diplopia
double vision; also called ambiopia
dura meter
the outermost of the three memebranes (meniges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord
dyslexia
A condition characterized by an impairment of the ability to read; leeters and words are often reversed when reading
efferent nerves
Tramsmitters of nerve impulses away from the central nervous system; also known as motor nerves
embolism
an abnormal condition in which a blood clot (embolus) becomes lodged in a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of clood within the vessel.
epidural space
the space immediately outside of the dura mater that contains a supporting cushion of fat and other connective tissues
epilepsy
a neurological condition characterized by recurrent episodes of sudden, brief, attacks of seizures.
fissure
a deep groove on the surface of an organ
fontanelle
a space covered by tough membrane between the bones of an infant's cranium, called a "soft spot."
gait
the style of walking
ganglion
a knotlike mass of nerve tissue found outside the brain or spinal cord
gray matter
the part of the of the nervous system consisting of axons that are not covered with myelin sheath, giving a gray appearance
gyrus
same as convolution
hemiparesis
slight or partial paralysis of one half of the body
hemiplegia
Paralysis of one half of the body
herpes zoster
an acute infection caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox, characterized by painful vesicular lesions along the path of a spinal nerve; also called shingles.
hyperesthesia
excessive sensitivity to sensory stimuli, such as pain or touch
hyperkinesis
excessive muscular movement and physcial activity; hyperactivity
hypothalamus
a part of the brain located below the thalamus that controls many functions such as body temperature, sleep and appetite
interneurons
connecting neurons that conduct impulses from afferent nerves to or toward motor nerves
Kernig's sign
a diagnostic sign for mennigitis marked by a person's inability to extend the leg completely when the thigh is flexxed upon the abdomen and the person is sitting or lying down
kinesiology
the study of muscle movement
lethargy
a state of being sluggish
longitudinal fissure
a deep groove in the middle of the cerbrum that divides the cerebellum in the right and left hemispheres
medulla oblongata
one of the three parts of the brain stem. The medulla oblongata is the most essential part of the brain in that it contains the cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory centers of the brain.
meninges
the three layers of protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
microglia
small, neuroglial sells found in the interstitial tissue of the nervous system that engulf cellular debris, waste produsts, and pathogens
midbrain
the uppermost aprt of the brain stem
motor nerves
same as efferent nerves
myelin sheath
a protective sheath that covers the axons of many nervesin the body; it acts as an electrical insulator and helps to speed the conduction of nerve impulses
narcolepsy
uncontrolled sudden attacks of sleep
nerve
a cordlike bundle of nerve fibers that transmit impulses to and from the brain and the spinal cord
nerve block
the injection of a local anethetic along the course of a nerve or nerves to eliminate sensation to that area
neuralgia
severe, sharp, spasmlike pain that extends along the course of one or more nerves
neuritis
inflammation of a nerve
neuroglia
the supporting tissue of the nervous system
neurologist
a physician who specializes in treating the siseases and disorders of the brain
neurology
the study of the nervous system and its disorders
neuron
a nerve cell
neuralgia
sever, sharp, spasmlike pain that extends along the couse of one or more nerves
neuritis
inflammation of a nerve
neurologia
the suppoting tissues of the nervous system
neurologist
a physician who specializes in the treatment of diseases and disorders of the nervous system
neurology
the study of the nervous system and its disorders
neuron
a nerve cell
neurosurgeon
a physician who specializes in the surgery of the nervous system
neurosurgery
any surgery involving the nervous system
neurotransmitter
a chemical substance within the body that activates or inhibits the transmission of nerve impulses between synapses
nuchal rigidity
rigidity of the neck; meningitis
occlusion
blockage
oligodendrocyte
a type of neurological cell found in the intersitial tissue of the nervous system; its dendrite projections coil around the axons of many neurons to form the myelin sheath
palliative
soothing
paraplegia
paralysis of the lower extremities and trunk usually the result of a spinal injury
parasympathetic nerves
nerves of the autotomic nervous system that regulates, involuntary, essential body functions such as slowing the heart rate, increasing peristalsis of the intestines, increasing glandular secretions, relaxing sphincters
parasymathomimetic
copying or producing the same effects as those of the parasympathetic nerves
parasthesia
a sensation of numbness or tingling
peripheral nervous system
the part of the nervous system outside the central nervous system consisting of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves.
phagocytosis
the process by which certain cells engulf and destroy microorganisms and cellular debris
pia mater
the innermost of the three membranes surrounding the brain and the spinal cord
pineal body
a small cone-shape structure located in the diencephalon of the brain; thought to be involved in regulating the body's biological clock; produces melatonin
plexus
a network of interwoven nerves
pons
the poart of the brain that is located between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain; it acts as a bridge to connect the medulla oblongata and the cerebellum to the upper portions of the brain
quadriplegia
paralysis of all four extremities and the trunk of the body; cuased by an injury to the spinal cord
radiculotomy
the surgical resection of the spinal nerve root; a procedure performed to relieve pain
receptor
a sensory nerve ending
rhizotomy
same as radiculotomy
sciatia
inflammation of the sciatic nerve; characterized by pain along the couse of the nerve, radiating through the thigh and down the back of the leg
sensory
pertaining to sensation
sensory nerves
also afferent nerves
shunt
a tube or passage that diverts or redirects body fluid from one cavity or vessel to another
somatic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that provides voluntary control over skeletal muscle contractions
stimulus
any agent or factor capable of iniating a nerve impulse
stupor
same as lethary. Not aware of their surroundings
subarachoid space
the space located just under the arachnois membrane that contains cerebrospinal fluid
subdural space
the space located just beneath the dura mater that contains serous fluid
sulcus
a depression or shallow groove on the surface of an organ
sympathetic nerves
nerves of the autonomic nervous system that regulate, involuntary essential body functions such as increasing the heart rate, constricitng blood vessels, and raising blood pressure
sympathomimetic
copying or producing the same effects as the sympathic nerves
synapse
the space between the end of one nerve and the beginning of another, through which nerve impulses are transmitted
syncope
fainting
thalamus
the part of the brain located between the cerebral hemispheres and the midbrain; the thalamus receives all sensory stimui, except those of smell, and relays them on to the cerebral cortex
thrombosis
an abnormal condition in ehich a clot develops in a blood vessel
tonic-clonic seizure
a seizure characterized by the presence of muscle contraction or tension floowed by relacxation, creating a "jerking" movement of the body
ventricle
a small hollow within the brain that is filled with cerebrospinal fluid
whiplash
an injury to the cervical vertebrae and their supporting structures due to sudeen back-and-forth, hjerking movement of the head and neck.
white matter
the part of the nervous system consisting of axons that are covered with myelin sheath, giving a white appearance.