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198 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
ambiopia
double vision cause by each eye focusing seperatly
amblyopia
dullness or dimness of vision
anisocoria
inequality in the diameter of the pupils of the eyes
blepharoptosis
drooping of the upper eyelid
conjunctivitis
inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye
corneal
pertaining to the cornea
dacryorrhea
excessive flow of tears
diplopia
double vision caused by each eye focusing separatly
ectropion
eversion (turning outward) of the edge of the eyelidq
entropian
inversion (turning inward) of the edge of the eyelid
esotropia
an obvious inward turning of one eye in relation to the other eye; also called crosseyes
exotropia
an obvious outward turning of one eye in relation to the other eye; also called walleye
extraocular
pertaining to outside the eye
hemianopia
blindness in 1/2 of the visual field
iriditis
inflammation of the iris
iritis
inflammation of the iris
lacrimal
pertaining to tears
miosis
abnormal constriction of the pupil of the eye
miotic
an agent that causes the pupil of the eye to constrict
mydriasis
abnormal dilatation of the pupil of the eye
nystagmus
involuntary, rhythmic jerking movements of the eye. may be from side to side up and down or combination of both
ophthalmologist
a medical doctor who specializes in the treatment of the diseases and disorders of the eye
ophthalmology
the branch of medicine that specializes in the study of the diseases and disorders of the eye
ophthalmopathy
any disease of the eye
optic
pertaining to the eyes or to sight
optician
a health professional who specializes in filling prescriptions for corrective lenses for glasses or for contact lenses
optometrist
a health professional who specializes in testing the eyes for visual acuity and prescribing correcting lenses
phacomalacia
softening of the lens of the eye
photophobia
abnormal sensitivity to light especially by the eyes
presbyopia
loss of accommodation for near vision; poor vision due to the natural aging process
retinopathy
any disease of the retina
astigmatism
a refractive error causing the light rays entering the eye to be focused irregularly on the retina due to an abnormally shaped cornea
blepharitis
inflammation of the eyelid margins stemming from seborrheic allergic or bacterial origin
blepharoptosis
occurs when the eyelid partially or entirely covers the eye as a result of a weakened muscle
cataract
the lens in the eye becomes progressively cloudy losing its normal transparency and thus altering the perception of images due to the interference of light transmission to the retina
chalazion
a cyst or nodule on the eyelid rresulting from an obstruction of a meibomian gland, which is responsible for lubricating the margin of the eyelid
conjunctivitis acute
inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the eyelids and covering the front part of the eyeball
ectropion
turning out or eversion of the eyelash margins from the eyeball leading to exposure of the eyelid and eyeball surface and lining
entropion
turning in of the eyelash margins resulting in the sensation similar to that of a foreign body in the eye
exophthalmia
an abnormal protrusion of the eyeball usually with the sclera noticeable over the iris, typically due to an expanded volume of the orbital contents
glaucoma
ocular disorders identified as a group due to the increase in intraocular pressure
hordeolum
bacterial infection of a eyelash follicle or sebaceous gland originating with redness swelling and mild tendrness in the margin of the eyelash (stye)
hyperopia
a refractive error in which the lens of the eye cannot focus on an image accurately resulting in impaired close vision that is blurred due to the light rays being focused behind the retina because the eyeball is shorter than normal
hyphema
a bleed into the anterior chamber of the eye resulting as a postoperactive complication or from a blunt eye injury
keratitis
corneal inflammation caused by a microorganism trauma to the eye a break in the sensory innervation of the cornea, a hypersensitivity reaction, or a tearing defect
myopia
a refractive error in which the lens of the eye cannot focus on a image accurately, resulting in impaired distant vision that is blurred due to the light rays being focused in front of the retina because the eyeball is longer than normal
scleritis
the presence of inflammation in the white, outside covering of the eyeball, the sclera
strabismus
failure of the eyes to gaze in the same direction due to weakness in the muscles controlling the position of one eye. the most common type of strabismus is nonparalytic strabismus, an inherited defect in which the eye position of the two eyes has no relationship
fundoscopy
the examination of the fundus of the eye, the base or the deepest part of the eye, with an instrument called an ophthalmoscope through a procedure called ophthalmoscopy
laser in situ keratomileusis
the lasik procedure is a form of laser vision correction for nearsightedness
tonometry
the process of determining the intraocular pressure by calculating the resistance of the eyeball to an applied force causing indentation
OD
RIGHT EYE (OCULAR DEXTER)
OS
LEFT EYE (OCULAR SINISTER)
OU
EACH EYE (OCULUS UTERQUE)
PERLA
PUPILS EQUAL; REACT TO LIGHT AND ACCOMMODATION
REM
RAPID EYE MOVEMENT
acoustic
pertaining to sound or hearing
aural
pertaining to the ear
labyrinthitis
inflammation of the inner ear
otalgia
pain in the ear; earache
otitis media
inflammation of the middle ear
otomycosis
a fungal infection of the external auditory meatus of the ear
otorrhea
drainage from the ear; usually associated with inflammation of the ear
presbycusis
loss of hearing due to the natural aging process
tinnitus
a ringing or tinkling noise heard in the ears; may be a sign of injury to the ear, some disease prodess, or toxic levels of some medication from prolonged use
vertigo
a sensation of spinning or of having things in the room or area spinning around the person; a result of disturbance of the equilibrium
cholesteatoma
a slow growing cystic mass made up of epithelial cell debris and cholesterol found in the middle ear
otitis externa
inflammation of the outer or external ear canal also called swimmers ear
otitis media
a middle ear infection; which predominately affects infants toddlers and preschoolers
myringotomy
a surgical procedure with insertion of a small ventilation tube introduced into the inferior segment of the tympanic membrane
ENT
EARS NOSE AND THROAT
AD
RIGHT EAR (AURAL DEXTRA)
AS
LEFT EAR (AURIS SINISTRA)
AU
EACH EAR (AURIS UNITAS)
antiseptic
a substance that tends to inhibit the growth and reproduction of microorganisms
arteriovenous fistula
a surgical connection between an artery and a vein that provides access for hemodialyis
aseptic techniques
any health care procdure in which precautions are taken to prevent contamination of a person, object, or area by microorganisms
asymptomatic
without symptoms
azotemia
the presence of excessive amounts of waste products of metabolism in the blood caused by failure of the kidneys to remove urea from the blood. azotemia is a characteristice of uremia
calculus
an abnormal stone formed in the body tissues by an accumulation of mineral salts; usually formed in the gallbladder and kidney
catheter
a hollow flexible tube that can be inserted into a body cavity or vessel for the purpose of instilling or withdrawing fluid
cystometer
an instrument that measures bladder capacity in relation to changing pressure
cystoscope
an instrument used to view the interior of the bladder , ureter, or kidney. it consists of an outer sheath with a lightng system, a scope for viewing, and a passage for catheters and devices used in surgical procedures
dialysate
solution that contains water and electrolytes that passes through the artificial kidney to remove excess fluids and wastes from the blood; also called bath
dialysis
the process of removing waste products from the blood when the kidneys are unable to do so. hemodialysis involves passing the blood through an artificial kidney for filtering out impurities. peritoneal dialysis involves introducing fluid into the abdomen through a catheter. through the process of osmosis, this fluid draws waste products out of the capillaries into the abdominal cavity; it is then removed from the abdomen via a catheter
dwell time
length of time that dialysis solution stays in the peritoneal cavity during peritoneal dialysis
glumeruler filtrate
substances that filter out of the blood through the thin walls of the glomeruli
meatotomy
incision into the meatus
micturition
the act of eliminating urine from the bladder; also called voiding or urination
nephrolith
a kidney stone; also called a renal calculus
nephrolithiasis
a condition of kidney stones; also known as renal calculi
peritonitis
inflammation of the peritoneum
pyelitis
inflammation of the renal pelvis
pyelonephritis
a bacterial infection of the renal pelvis of the kidney
renal
pertaining to the kidney
residual urine
urine that remains in the bladder after urination
solute
a substance dissolved in a solution, as in the waste products filtered out of the kidney into the urine
specific gravity
the weight of a substance compared with an equal volume of water, which is considered to be the standard.
toxic
poisonus
turbid
cloudy
uremia
the presence of excessive amounts of urea and other nitrogens waste products in the blood
urethritis
inflammation of the urethra. urethritis, characterized by dysuria, is usually the result of an infection of the bladder or kidney
urinary incontinence
inability to control urination
urinary retention
an abnormal involuntary accumulation of urine in the bladder; the inability to empty the bladder
urination
the act of eliminating urine from the body
urine
the fluid released by the kidneys transported by the ureters, retained in the bladder, and eliminated through the urethra. normal urine is clear, straw colored, slightly acid
voiding
the act of eliminating urine from the body
albuminuria
the presence in the urine of abnormally large quantities of protein, usually albumin
anuria
the cessation of urine production, or a urinary output of less than 100ml per day
bacteriuria
the presence of bacteria in the urine
dysuria
painful urination
enuresis
a condition of urinary inconsistence, especially at night in bed; bedwetting
glycosuria
abnormal presenc of a sugar, especially glucose, in the urine
hematuria
abnormal presence of blood in the urine
ketonuria
presence of excessive amounts of ketone bodies in the urine
lethargy
the state or quality of being indifferent, apathetic or sluggish
malaise
a vague feeling of bodily weakness or discomfort often marking the onset of disease or infection
nocturia/nycturia
urination, especially at night
oliguria
secretion of a diminished amount of urine in relation to the fluid intake; skanty urine output
polydipsia
excessive thirst
polyuria
excretion of abnormally large amounts of urine
pyuria
the presence of pus in the urine, usually a sign of a infection of the urinary tract
cystitis
inflammation of the urinary bladder
hydonephrosis
distension of the pelvis and calyces of the kidney caused by urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in a ureter
polycystic kidney disease
a hereditary disorder of the kidneys in which grapelike fluid filled sacs or cysts replace normal kidney tissue
renal calculi
stone formations in the kidney
glomerulonephritis
an inflammation of the glomerulus of the kidneys
peritoneal dialysis
instead of using the hemodialysis machine as a filter, the pertoneal membrane is used as the filter in peritoneal dialysis
hemodialysis
the process of removing excess fluids and toxins from the bloos by continually shunting the patients blood from the body into a dialysis machine for filtering, and then returning the clean blood to the patients bloodstream
kidney transplantation
involves the surgical implantation of a healthy human donor kidney into the body of a patient with irreversible renal failure. kidney function is restored with a successful transplant and the patient is no longer dependent on dialysis
blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
a blood test performed to determine the amount of urea and nitrogen present in the blood
catheterization
the introduction of a catheter into a body cavity or organ to instill a substance or remove a fluid
creatinine clearance test
a diagnostic test for kidney function that measures the filtration rate of creatinine, a waste product which is normally removed by the kidney
cystometrography
an examination performed to evaluate bladder tone; measuring bladder pressure during filling and voiding
cystoscopy
the process of viewing the interior of the bladder using a cystoscope
extracorporeal lithotripsy
also known as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. this is a non invasive mechanical procedure for breaking up renal calculi so they can pass through the ureters
intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
also known as intravenous pyelography or excretory urogram; this radiographic procedure provides visualization of the entire urinary tract; kidneys ureters bladder and urethra
KUB (kidneys ureters bladder)
an xray of the lower abdomen that defines the size shape and location of the kidneys ureters and bladder. a contrast medium is not used with this xray
renal angiography
xray visualization of the internal anatomy of the renal blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium
fluoroscopy
radiological technique used to examine the function of an organ or a body part using a fluoroscope
retrograde pyelogram
a radiographic procedure in which small caliber catheters are passed through a cystoscope into the ureters to visualize the ureters and the renal pelvis
ultrasonography
aka ultrasound; this is a procedure in which sound waves are transmitted into the body structures as a small transducer is passed over the patients skin
urinalysis
a physical chemical or microscopic examination of urine
voiding cystourethrography
xray visualization of the bladder and urethra during the voiding process, after the bladder has been filled with a contrast material
BUN
BLOOD UREA NITROGEN
C & S
CULTURE AND SENSITIVITY; growth of microorganisms in a special medium and subsequent antibiotic testing to determine appropriate treatment
ESRD
END STAGE RENAL DISEASE
IVP
INTRAVENOUS PYELOGRAM
KUB
KIDNEYS URETERS BLADDER
pH
DEGREE OF ACIDITY OR ALKALINITY OF A SOLUTION; POTENTIAL HYDROGEN
UA
URINALYSIS
UTI
URINARY TRACT INFECTION
anorchism
the absence of one or both testicles
asymptomatic
without symptoms
balanoplasty
surgical repair of the glans penis
chancre
a skin lesion usually of primary syphilis that begins at the site of infection as a small raised area and develops into a red painless ulcer with a scooped out appearance also known as venereal sore
cryosurgery
use of subfreezing temperature to destroy tissue. the coolant is circulated through a metal probe chilling it to as low as -160 degreec C. when the probe touches the tissues of the body the moist tissues sdhere to the cold metal of the probe and freeze
dysuria
painful urination
ejaculation
the process of ejecting or expelling, the semen from the male urethra
epididymectomy
surgical removal of the epididymis
epididymitis
inflammation of the epididymis. this condition can be a result of a chlamydial infection in the male
exudates
fluid, pus, or serum that is slowly discharged from cells or blood vessels through small pores or breaks in cell membrane
forskin
a loose retractable fold of skin covering the tip of the penis; aka prepuce
glans penis
the tip of the penis
gonad
the male sex gland, which are called the testes. primary organ of the male reproductive system
kaposi's sarcoma
a malignant growth that gegins as soft, brownish or purple raised areas on the feet and slowly spreads in the skin, spreading to the lymph nodes and internal organs. it occurs most often in men and is associated with aids
malaise
a vague feeling of bodily weakness or discomfort often marking the onset of disease
malodorous
foul smelling; having a bad odor
motility
the ability to move spontaneously
mucopurulent
characteristics of a combination of mucus and pus
opportunistic infections
an infection caused by normally nondiseasae producting organisms that sets up in a host whose resistance has been decreased by surgery illnesses and disorders such as aids
palpation
a technique used in physical examinations that involves feeling parts of the body with the hands
perineum
the area between the scrotum and the anus in the male
prophylactic
any agent or regimen that contributes to the prevention of infection and disease
purulent
producing or containing pus
rectoscope
an instrument used to view the rectum that has a cutting and cauterizing loop
resectoscope
an instrument used to surgically remove tissue from the body; it has a light source and lens attached for viewing the area
residual urine
urine that remains in the bladder after urination
salpingitis
inflammation of the fallopian tubes; aka pelvic inflammatory disease
semen
a combination of sperm and various secretions that is expelled from the body through the urethra during sexual intercourse
spermatozoan (spermatozoon)
a mature male germ cell
testosterone
a male hormone secreted by the testes, responsible for the secondary sex characteristic changes that occure in the male with the onse ot puberty.
truss
an apparatus worn to prevent or block the herniation of the intestines or other orans through and opening in the abdominal wall
urethritis
inflammation of the urethra
vesicles
blisters; small raised skin lesions containing fluid
benign prostatic hypertophy
a benign enlargement of the prostate gland, creating pressure on the upper part of the urethra or neck of the bladder causing obstruction to the flow of urine
cryptorchidism
condition of undescended testicles; the absence of one or both testicles from the scrotum
phimosis
a tightness of the foreskin of the penis that prevents it from being pulled back. the opening of the foreskin narrows due to the tightness and may cause some difficulty with urination
inguinal hernia
a protrusion of a part of the intestine through a weakened spot in the muscles and membranes of the inuinal region of the abdomen; the intestine pushed into and someimes fills the entire scrotal sac in the male
varicocele
an abnormal dilation of the veins of the spermatic cord leading to the testicles
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
AIDS is a deadl virus that destroys the body's immune system by invading the helper T lymphocytes (T cells), which play an important part in the body's immune response. the human immunideficiency virus replicates itself within the T cells, destroys the lymphocyte, and then invades other lymphocytes
chlamydia
a sexually transmitte bacterial infection that causes inflammation of the cervix in women and inflammation of the urethra and the epididymis in men
genital herpes
a highly contagious viral infection of the male and female genitalia; aka venereal herpes. caused by the herpes simplex virus, genital herpes is transmitted by direct contact with infected body secretions. genital herpes differs from other sexually transmitted diseases in that it can recur spontaneously once the virus has been acquired.
genital warts
small, cauliflower like fleshy growths usually seen along the penis in the male and in or near the vagina in women. they are transmitted from person to person through sexual intercourse; they are caused by the human papillomavirus. the time span from initial contact with the virus to occurance of symptoms can be from 1 to 6 months
gonorrhea
a sexually transmitted bacterial infection of the mucous membrane of the genital tract in men and women. it is spread by sexual intercourse with an infected partner and can also be passed on from an infected mother to her infant during the birth process
syphilisq
a sexually transmitted disease characterized by lesions that may involve any organ or tissue. it is spread by sexual intercourse with an infected partner, and can also be passed through the placenta from an infected mother to her unborn infant. the spirochete, is the causative organism of this highly contagious disease. if left untreated this disease progresses through three stages each with characteristic signs and symptoms
trichomoniasis
a sexually transmitted protozoal infection of the vagina, urethra, or prostate. it is usually spread by sexual intercourse and affects approximately 15% of all sexually active people. the causative organiam is trichomonas vaginalis
castration
the surgical removal of the testicles in the male; aka orchidectomy