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111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cell
smallest and most numerous structural unit of living matter
nucleus
central controlling body within a living cell
chromosomes
the threadlike structures within the nucleus that control the functions of growth, repair, and reproduction for the body
genes
segments of chromosomes that transmit hereditary characteristics
anaplasia
a change in the structure and orientation of cells, characterized by a loss of differentiation and reversion to a more primitive form
aplasia
a developmental failure resulting in the absence of any organ or tissue
dysplasia
any abnormal developmen of tissues or organs
hyperplasia
an increase in the number of cells of a body part
hypoplasia
incomplete or underdeveloped organ or tissue, usually the result of a decrease in the number of cells
neoplasia
the new and abnormal development of cells that may be benign or malignant
connective tissue
tissue that supports and binds other body tissue and parts
epithelial tissue
the tissue that covers the internal and external organs of the body; it also lines the vessels, body cavities, glands, and body organs
muscle tissue
the tissue that is capable of producing movement of the parts and ogans of the body by contracting and relaxing its fibers
skeletal muscle
muscle that is attached to bone and is responsible for the movement of the skeleton
smooth muscle/visceral muscle
muscle that is foundin the walls of the hollow internal organs of the body such as the stomach and intestine
nervous tissue
tissue that transmits impulses throughout the body, thereby activating, coordinating, and controling the many functions of the body
tissue
a group of cells that perform specialized functions
system
organs that work together to perform the many functions of the body as a whole
histologist
a medical scientist who specializes in the study of tissues
cytology
the study of cells
peritoneum
a specific, serous membrane that covers the entire abdominal wall of the body and is reflected over the contained viscera
organ
tissues that are arranged together to perform a special function
frontal plane
any of the vertical planes passing through the body from the head to the fee, perpendicular to the sagittal planes and dividing the body into front and back portions
transverse plane
any of the planes cutting across the body perpendicular to the sagittal and the frontal planes, dividing the body in to superior and inferior portions
midsagittal plane
the plane that divides the body or a structure into right and left equal portions
hypochondriac
the right and left regions of the upper abdomen, beneath the cartilage of the lower ribs; located on either side of the epigastric region
epigastric
the region of the abdomen located between the right and left hypochondriac regions in the upper section of the abdomen, beneath the cartilage of the ribs
lumbar
the right and left regions of the middle section of the abdomen
umbilical
the region of the abdomen located in the middle section of the abdomen, between the right and left lumbar regions and directly beneath the epigastric region
inguinal
the right and left regions of the lower section of the abdomen; also called the iliac region
hypogastric
the middle section of the lower abdomen, beneath the umbilical region
thoracic cavity
the chest cavity, which contains the lungs, heart, aorta, esophagus, and trachea
abdominal cavity
the cavity beneath the thoracic cavity that is seperated from the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm
pelvic cavity
the lower front cavity of the body, located beneath the abdominal cavity
abdominopelvic cavity
a term that describes the abdominal and pelvic cavity collectively
cranial cavity
the cavity that contains the brain
spinal cavity
the cavity that contains the nerves of the spinal cord
cervical vertebrae
the first seven segments of the spinal column
thoracic vertebrae
the second segment of 12 vertebrae that make up the vertebral bones of the chest
lumbar vertebrae
the largest and strongst of the vertebrae of the spinal column, located in the lower back.
sacrum
the singular, triangular-shaped bone that results from the fusion of the five individual sacral bones of the child
coccyx
the tailbone
anatomical position
the standard reference position for the body as a whole
superficial
pertaining to the surface of the body, or near the surface
deep
away from the surface
anterior
pertaining to the front of the body or toward the belly of the body
posterior
pertaining to the back of the body
ventral
pertaining to the front; belly side
dorsal
pertaining to the back
medial
toward the midline of the body
lateral
toward the side of the body, away from the midline of the body
mediolateral
pertaining to the middle and side of a structure
superior
above or upward toward the head
inferior
below or downward toward the tail or feet
cranial
pertaining to the skull or cranium
caudal
pertaining to the tail
distal
away from or farthest from the trunk of the body, or farthest from the point of origin of a body part
proximal
toward or nearest to the trunk of the body, or nearest to the point of origin of a body part
supine
lying horizontally on the back; faceup
prone
lying facedown on the abdomen
supination
a movement that allows the palms of the hands to turn upward or forward
pronation
a movement that allows the palms of the hands to turn downward and backward
plantar
pertaining to the sole or the bottom of the feet
dorsum
the back or posterior surface of a part
mcburney's point
a point on the right side of the abdomen, about two-thirds of the distance between the umbilicus and the anterior bony prominence of the hip
membrane
a thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity, or divides a space, such as the abdominal membrane that lines the abdominal wall
midline of the body
the imaginary line that is created when the body is divided into equal right and left halves
munro's point
a point on the left side of the abdomen, about halfway between the umilicus and the anterior bony prominence of the hip
plane
imaginary slices, or cuts, made through the body as if a dividing sheet were passed through the body at a particular angle and in a particular direction, permitting a view from a different angle
spinal canal
the cavity within the vertebral column
thoracic
the chest cavity
umbilicus
the naval
verteral column
the flexible structure that forms the longitudinal axis of the skeleton
visceral
pertaining to the internal organs
RUQ
right upper quadrant
LUQ
left upper quadrant
RLQ
right lower quadrant
LLQ
left lower quadrant
abdomin/o
abdomen
ana-
not, without
anter/o
front
cervic/o
neck; cervix
coccyb/o
coccyx
crani/o
skull; cranium
cyt/o
cell
dors/o
back
dys-
bad, difficult, painful, disordered
epi-
upon, over
hist/o
tissue
hypo-
under, below, beneath, less than normal
-iac
pertaining to
ili/o
ilium
inguin/o
groin
inter-
between
-ion
action, process
later/o
side
lumb/o
loins, lower back
medi/o
middle
nucle/o
nucleus
pelv/i
pelvis
-plasm
living substance
poster/o
back
proxim/o
near
sacr/o
sacrum
-some
a "body" of a specified sort
spin/o
spine
thorac/o
chest
umbilic/o
navel
ventr/o
belly; front side
vertebr/o
vertebra
viscer/o
internal organs