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30 Cards in this Set

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What is pneumonia?
inflammation of the pulmonary parenchyma...common in childhood, more frequency in infancy and early childhood...may occur either as a primary disease or as a complication of another illness
What are the various types of pneumonia? (3)
lobar pneumonia
bronchopneumonia
interstitial pneumonia
What is lobar pneumonia?
all or a large segment of one or more pulmonary lobes is involved...
when both lungs are affected, it is known as bilateral or double pneumonia
What is bronchopneumonia?
begins in the terminal bronchioles, which becomes clogged with mucopurulent exudate to form consolidated patches in nearby lobules, also called lobular pneumonia
What is interstitial pneumonia?
the inflammatory process is more or less confined within the alveolar walls (interstitium) and theh peribronchial and interlobular tissues
Although the morphologic classification is typically used, the most useful classification of pneumonia is based on?
etiologic agent
ex: viral
bacterial
mycoplasmal
aspiration of foreign
substances
What else might cause pneumonia?
histomycosis
coccidioidomycosis
other fungi

identified from clinical history, age, physical exam, radiography, lab exam
Which pneumonias occur most frequently, viral or bacterial?
viral...seen in children of all ages and often associated with viral URIs
What viruses cause pneumonia?
RSV in infants
parainfluenza
influenza
adenovirus in older children
Viral infections of respiratory tract render the affected child more susceptible to?

symptomatic and includes measures to promote oxygenation and comfort, such as oxygen administration with cool mist, chest physiotherapy and postural drainage, antipyretics for fever management, fluid intake, and family support
secondary bacterial invasion, esp. when there is denuded bronchial mucosa....
what is the treatment for this?
What is primary atypical pneumonia?
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the most common cause of pneumonia in children between ages 5 and 12 years...occurs fall and winter...7-10 day illness...no hospitalization
What is severe acute respiratory syndrome?
SEVERE form of atypical pneumonia identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
What is SARS caused by?
coronavirus called SARS Co-V...close contact with another SARS person
Clinical manifestations of SARS includes?
fever greater than 100.4
headache
cough
shortness of breath
difficulty breathing
after 2-7 days, a non-
productive cough and
dyspnea
If symptoms of SARS are severe enough, patient may requires?
intubation and mechanical ventilation
Symptoms of SARS in teenagers?
malaise
myalgia
chills
rigor
Symptoms of SARS in young children?
cough
runny nose
What are lab findings for SARS?
lymphopenia
leukopenia
thrombocytopenia
elevated lactate dehydrogenase
aspartate aminotransferase
creatinine kinase levels
The most reliable lab diagnostic test is positive antibodies for the SARS coronarvirus how many days after the illness?
21
Chest radiographs is a substantial number of patients reveal focal interstitial infiltrates that progress to more?
generalized, patchy, interstitial infiltrates
What supportive treatment care can be given to SARS patients?
antibiotics
antiviral drugs
steroids
What precautions should the nurse take regarding SARS?
strict hand-washing
contact precautions
airborne precautions
isolation room with
negative pressure relative
to surrounding area and
the use of an N-95 filter-
ing disposable respirator
for persons entering room)
Anyone with contact with SARS patients, should put on a?
surgical mask
What kind of fever is generally found with pneumonia?
usually quite high
What kind of respiratory changes are seen with pneumonia?
unproductive to productive
with whitish sputum
tachypnea
breath sounds-rhonchi or
fine crackles
dullness with percussion
chest pain
retractions
nasal flaring
pallor to cyanosis (depends
on severity)
chest x-ray film - diffuse
or patchy infiltration
with peribronchial
distribution
behavior - irritable,
restless, lethargic
GI--anorexia, vomiting,
diarrhea, abdominal pain
<What is lung parenchyma?
lung alveoli and lower bronchioles

general definition: essential parts of an organ that are concerned with its function in contradistinction to its framework
<Pneumonia is caused by?
.
<What are 2 classifications of pneumonia?
community acquired
hospital acquired
<Hospital adquired pneumonia as what percentage mortality rate and it's higher for patients with complications...that's why it's important for patient to continue deep breathing, keep turning, particularly after anesthetic because mortality from hospitalized pneumonia is very high
20-50%
.
.