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241 Cards in this Set

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What percentage of problems seen in exotic pet medicine can be attributed to a lack of information of the basic husbandry of these species?
Approximately 85% of problems seen in exotic pet medicine can be attributed to a lack of information of the basic husbandry of these species.
What are the majority of species seen on a normal avian fecal Gram's stain?
The majority of species seen on a normal avian fecal Gram's stain are gran-positive organisms.
What is the normal body temperature of most psittacine species?
Normal body temperature of most psittacine species is 102 to 104 degrees.
Why should drugs not be injected into the caudal half of an avian?
Drugs injected into the caudal half of the bird may result in drug being shunted toward the kidneys by way of the renal portal system?
How is nutrition usually provided to sick anorexic birds and reptiles?
Sick anorexic birds and reptiles are usually provided nutrition enterally by place a tube into the crop or esophagus through the glottis.
Which gastrointestinal zoonosis is of greatest concern in birds?
Psittacosis is the gastrointestinal zoonosis of greatest concern in birds.
What causes the gastrointestinal zoonosis psittacosis?
Chlamydia psittaci causes the gastrointestinal zoonosis.
What is the best method to determine the gender of a snake?
The gender of a snake is best determined with a metal probe inserted into the cloaca.
What 6 pieces of information are critical to obtain when taking an environmental history on a reptilian patient?
Environmental history information on a reptilian patient should include: cage temperature, humidity level, photoperiod, light source, type of heat source, and temperature gradient.
What is the recommended temperature to maintain hospitalized birds?
Hospitalized birds are best kept at 80 to 90 degrees.
How can a fecal sample be obtained from a lizard?
A fecal sample can be obtained from a lizard by colonic wash.
What are 4 sites commonly used for venipuncture in snakes?
Sites comonly used for venipuncture in snakes include: caudal tail vein, cardiac puncture, ventral abdominal vein, or palatine vessels.
Why is it important to house avian and reptilian patients in separate rooms?
Avian and reptilian patients should be housed in separate rooms because the normal gram-negative fecal flora of most reptiles can infect the birds.
Why must reptiles be exposed to full-spectrum artifical light?
Reptiles must be exposed to full-spectrum artificial light to help prevent metabolic bone disease due to lack of vitamin D3 and calcium.
Which zoonotic microorganisms is of greatest concern when handling reptiles?
The zoonotic microorganisms of greatest concern when handing reptiles are gram-negative enteric bacteria such as Salmonella.
What 3 areas are used to obtain a blood sample from a ferret?
Blood samples from the ferret can be obtained from the: cranial vena cava, jugular vein, and cephalic vein.
What is the expected life span of a rabbit maintained with proper husbandry?
A life span of 5 to 6 years is expected in a rabbit maintained with proper husbandry.
What area is usually used in rabbits to give an intravenous injection?
Intravenous injections are generally given to rabbits in the marginal ear vein.
Why should a guinea pig not be bred after the age of 7 months?
It is not recommended to breed a guinea pig after the age of 7 months because pubic-symphysis fusion can lead to dystocia and death during parturition.
In which species are zoonotic diseases transmitted by poor hygiene of most concern?
Zoonotic diseases transmitted by poor hygiene are of greatest concern in the hamster.
How is the sex of mice and gerbils determined?
The sex of mice and gerbils can be determined by noting the greater relative urogenital distance in males than in females.
Which small exotic mammal usually requires anesthesia in order for a close physical exam to be performed on them?
Hedgehogs usually require anesthesia in order for a close physical examination to be performed on them.
How is a cloacal swab obtained from a bird?
A cloacal swab is performed by inserting a moistened cotton swab into cloaca and gently rotating.
What are 4 common venipuncture sites used in avian species?
Common venipuncture sites used in avian species include: cutaneous ulnar vein, right jugular vein, medial metatarsal vein, and toenail clipping.
What is the cause of red nasal discharge in rats?
Red nasal discharge in rats is due to the pigment of the Harderian gland secretions.
What are scutes?
Scutes are any scale-like structure.
What is snuffles?
Snuffles is a respiratory disease in rabbits caused by Pasteurella multocida.
What is the nomenclature for rabbits?
Nomenclature for rabbits is described as: a male is a buck, a female is a doe, young is kit, a birth group is a litter, and the birthing term is kindling.
What are some of the characteristics of rabbits?
Characteristics of the rabbit include: open-rooted teeth, largest ova among all animals, naturally copraphagic, very light skeletal structure, lack of foot pads, not members of the rodent family, very alkaline urine.
What percentage of the total weight of a rabbit is made up of its skeletal structure?
The skeletal structure of a rabbit accounts for 7% of its body weight.
What is the breeding life of a rabbit?
A rabbit reaches sexual maturity at 6 months, and can continue to breed for up to 3 to 4 years of age.
What is the average gestation period for rabbits?
The average gestation period for rabbits is 32 days.
What is the average litter size for rabbits?
The average litter size for rabbits is 7 to 8 kits.
How is it possible to diagnose pregnancy in a rabbit?
Pregnancy can be diagnosed in a rabbit by palpating abdomen at 10 to 14 days of gestation to feel formation and kits, and by observing rabbit pulling out fur and nest building during the last 3 days of gestation.
What is the average life span of a rabbit?
The average life span of a rabbit is 6 to 7 years.
What is the weaning age for rabbits?
Rabbits are weaned at 8 weeks of age.
How are rabbits sexed?
Rabbits are sexed by noting the greater relative urogenital distance in males than in females.
Which method of restraint should be used as a last resort with rabbits?
Chemical restraint should be used as a last resort with rabbits.
What are the 2 most critical restraint procedures to follow in handling rabbits?
The 2 most critical restrain procedures to follow in handling rabbits are: never pick up by ears, and always support hind end.
Which method should be used to carry a rabbit short distances?
To carry a rabbit short distances, grab by scruff and support hind end next to body.
Which method should be used to carry a rabbit for long distances?
To carry a rabbit for long distances, support rabbit on forearm with head tucked under arm, holding by scruff, and supporting hind end against body.
What is the purpose of providing a salt ring to rabbits?
Salt rings will help rabbits with water intake, as well as acting for an abrasive for teeth.
What are 4 common injection sites used for rabbits?
Common injection sites for rabbits are: subcutaneous (in scruff), intramuscular (in lumbar area), interperitoneal (in posterior quadrant of abdomen), and intravascular (in marginal ear vein).
What are 3 blood collection sites for rabbits?
Blood collection sites for rabbits are intravenous, intracardiac, and quick.
Which blood collection method is used for taking a small sample from rabbits?
The most common blood collection method for taking small samples from rabbits is the quick.
Which blood collection method for rabbits is only performed under anesthesia?
Intracardiac blood collection for rabbits is only performed under anesthesia.
What are 9 common health problems of the rabbit?
Common health problems of the rabbit include: fur pulling, fur balls, sore hocks, malocclusion, back injuries, hatchburn, abcesses, heat stroke, and antibiotic toxicity.
What is the typical cause for back injuries in the rabbit?
The most common reason for back injuries in rabbits is improper restraint.
What are the common reasons for fur chewing or fur pulling in rabbits?
Common reasons for fur chewing or fur pulling in rabbits is nervousness, stress, or overcrowding.
What problems in rabbits can result from fur balls?
Fur balls in rabbits can result in constipation or impaction.
What is hatchburn?
Hatchburn, otherwise known as urine scald, is a dermatitis issue caused by constant contact with eliminations in the cage.
What is the most common result of malocclusion in rabbits?
The most common result of malocclusion in rabbits is starvation.
What typically causes abcesses in rabbits?
Abcesses in rabbits are typically caused by the microorganisms pasteurella and staphylococcus.
What methods are used to provide support for rabbits suffering from heat stroke?
Rabbits suffering from heat stroke can be gently sprayed with water or wrapped in a cold damp cloth.
What is the maximum temperature and humidity level for rabbits?
Rabbits are not tolerant of temperatures over 85 degrees, and are in danger with humidity levels over 70%.
What are the typical reasons for sore hocks in rabbits?
Sore hocks in rabbits usually stems from: thumping, lack of movement because cage is too small or rabbit is obese, or an unsanitary cage.
What are 3 common infections in rabbits?
Common infections in rabbits are: snuffles, kennel cough, and myxomatosis.
What is snuffles?
Snuffles in an upper respiratory condition in rabbits caused by the pasteurella microorganism.
How is snuffles most commonly transmitted?
Snuffles is most commonly transmitted by aerosolization or direct contact.
What are the most common clinical signs of snuffles?
The most common clinical signs of snuffles are occular and nasal discharge.
How is kennel cough transmitted?
Kennel cough is transmitted by aerosolization or contact with a fomite.
What are the clinical signs of kennel cough in rabbits?
Clinical signs of kennel cough in rabbits are rhinitis and pneumonia.
How is myxomatosis transmitted?
Myxomatosis is transmitted by a mosquito or other biting insect.
What are the clinical signs of myxomatosis?
Clinical signs for myxomatosis are swelling of head, ears, and neck, which gives this infection the nickname "big head syndrome".
Which of the three most common infections in rabbits is highly fatal and usually results in death within 2 weeks?
Myxomatosis in rabbits is highly fatal and usually results in death within 2 weeks.
Which infection is considered the neoplasia or cancer of rabbits?
Myxomatosis is considered the neoplasia or cancer of rabbits.
What is a common way to diagnose gastrointestinal parasites?
Gastrointestinal parasites are best detected by fecal floats.
What is a common way to diagnose external parasites?
External parasites are typically detected by skin scrapings.
What are 3 of the parasites that commonly afflict rabbits?
Common parasites of the rabbit include: psoroptes cuniculi, cheyletiella, and coccidia eimeria.
What is psoroptes cuniculi?
Psoroptes cuniculi is an ear mite parasite which infests external ear canal.
What are some of the clinical signs of psoroptes cuniculi?
Clinical signs of psoroptes cuniculi are: crusty ears with exuding serum, head shaking, and ear scratching.
How is psoroptes cuniculi transmitted?
Psoroptes cuniculi is transmitted by direct contact.
What is cheyletiella?
Cheyletiella is the rabbit fur mite.
What are the clinical signs for cheyletiella?
Clinical signs for cheyletiella are allopecia and pruritis.
How is cheyletiella transmitted?
Cheyletiella is transmitted by direct contact.
What is coccidia eimeria?
Coccidia eimeria is a protozoa which infests intestines.
What are the clinical signs of coccidia eimeria?
Clinical signs of coccidia eimeria vary widely, from general poor health due to lack of nutrition to chronic enteritis.
How is coccidia eimeria transmitted?
Coccidia eimeria is transmitted by contact with feces of infected animal.
What are 6 assessments that must be made during an avian examination?
An avian examination should include assessments of: nails, feathers, keel, respiratory, stool, vent and cloaca, perch posture, and nares and choanal slit.
What is the nomenclature of guinea pigs?
Nomenclature for guinea pigs is described as: male is a boar, female is a sow, young are young, birthing group is a litter, and birthing term is whelping.
What are some of the characteristics of guinea pigs?
Characteristics of guinea pigs include: long gestation periods in relation to other members of rodentia family, must be supplemented with Vitamin C, sensitive to antibiotics, belong to same suborder as chinchilla and porcupine, and picky eaters.
What are the 3 most common varieties of guinea pigs?
The most common varieties of guinea pigs are English, Abyssinian, and Peruvian.
What is the average life span of guinea pigs?
The average life span of guinea pigs is 3 to 4 years.
What is the breeding life of guinea pigs?
Guinea pigs can breed from 3 months of age up to 4 years of age.
What are two common reasons for dystocia in guinea pigs?
Dystocia can be caused by pubic-symphisis or by overfeeding the sow.
What is the length of the estrus cycle in guinea pigs?
The estrus cycle is 14 to 19 days for guinea pigs.
How is a successful mating determined in guinea pigs?
A successful mating in guinea pigs is determined by observing the female dispelling a white vaginal plug 24 to 48 hours post copulation.
What is the gestation period for guinea pigs?
The gestation period for guinea pigs is 59 to 72 days, usually averaging 63 days.
What is the weaning age of guinea pigs?
The weaning age of guinea pigs is only 1 month because they are born fully mature and can begin eating solid food immediately after birth.
How are guinea pigs sexed?
Guinea pigs are sexed by noting the greater urogenital distance in males than in females.
What is the proper way to restrain guinea pigs?
The proper way to restrain guinea pigs is by placing one hand under hindquarters and the other hand under forelegs.
What is the most common injection site in small animals?
The most common injection site in small animals is subcutaneously in scruff.
What are 4 common injection sites for guinea pigs?
Common injection sites for guinea pigs are subcutaneous (in scruff), intramuscular (in lumbar or hind leg muscle), intravenous (in lateral saphenous), and intraperitoneal (in posterior quadrant of abdomen).
Why should gavage not be performed on guinea pigs?
Guinea pigs should not have gavage for oral medications because if substance is forced, they can drown.
What are typical blood collection sites for guinea pigs?
Blood collection on guinea pigs is taken by intravenous (from lateral saphenous or ear vein) or by quick.
What are 3 general health problems of guinea pigs?
General health problems for guinea pigs include: scurvy, dystocia, and ulcerative pododermatitis.
What is the cause of scurvy?
Scurvy is caused by hypovitaminosis C.
What is the nickname for pododermatitis?
The nickname for pododermatitis is "bumblefoot".
What is ulcerative pododermatitis?
Ulcerative pododermatitis is a chronic case of dermatitis affecting feet.
How can ulcerative pododermatitis be avoided?
Ulcerative pododermatitis can be avoided by use of abrasive flooring and by maintaining clean cage conditions.
What can be the result if ulcerative pododermatitis is left untreated?
Ulcerative pododermatitis can result in arthritis if left untreated.
What are 3 common infections in guinea pigs?
Common infections in guinea pigs include: bordatella bronchiseptica, salmonellosis, and betahemolytic streptococcus.
What are the clinical signs for betahemolytic streptococcus?
Clinical signs for betahemolytic streptococcus are head tilting due to strep invading lymph nodes of head and neck.
How is betahemolytic streptococcus transmitted?
Betahemolytic streptococcus is transmitted by aerosolization, contact with conjunctiva or genitals, and by cutaneous or bite wounds.
What are the clinical signs of salmonellosis?
Clinical signs for salmonellosis include anorexia leading to weight loss and diarrhea leading to dehydration.
How is salmonellosis transmitted?
Salmonellosis is transmitted by fecal/oral or injection of feces-contaminated substances.
What is the nickname for bordatella bronchiseptica?
The nickname for bordatella bronchiseptica is "kennel cough".
What are the clinical signs of bordatella bronchiseptica in guinea pigs?
Clinical signs in guinea pigs for bordatella bronchiseptica include: hoarse unproductive cough, occular and nasal discharge, dystocia and stillbirths, and can eventually result in death.
How is bordatella bronchiseptica transmitted?
Bordatella bronchiseptica is transmitted by aerosolization or contact with a fomite.
What are 2 common parasites affecting guinea pigs?
Common parasites affecting guinea pigs include the guinea pig louse and coccidia.
How is the guinea pig louse transmitted?
The guinea pig louse is transmitted by direct contact with an infected host or infected bedding.
What are the clinical signs of the guinea pig louse?
Clinical signs of the guinea pig louse are allopecia and pruritis, with warm and moist ear area.
What are some of the clinical signs of coccidia in guinea pigs?
Clinical signs of coccidia in guinea pigs are watery stool and weight loss.
What are some of the characteristics of hamsters?
Characteristics of hamsters include: very short gestation periods, great escape artists, nocturnal, not a good pet for children, contain large cheek pouches for storing food, and golden hamster one of most popular pocket pets.
What is the average life span of a hamster?
The average life span of a hamster is 18 to 24 months.
What is the breeding life for a female hamster?
Females can begin breeding at 6 weeks of age up until about 14 months of age.
How long is the estrus cycle of hamsters?
Hamsters have an estrus cycle of 4 days.
What is the gestation period of a hamster?
The gestation period of a hamster is 14 to 18 days, averaging 16 days.
How is pregnancy determined in hamsters?
Pregnancy is determined in hamsters by gently palpating abdomen and by observing rapid weight gain.
What is the average litter size for hamsters?
Average litter size for hamsters is 10 to 15 young.
How are hamsters sexed?
Hamsters are sexed by noting the greater urogenital distance in males than in females.
Which two methods are recommended to use for restraint of hamsters?
Hamsters can be restrained by cupping in hands if calm and docile, otherwise by scruffing with index finger and thumb and cupping body with rest of fingers.
What are 3 typical injection sites used for hamsters?
Typical injection sites used for hamsters includes: subcutaneous (in scruff), intraperitoneal (in posterior quadrant of abdomen), and intramuscular (in hind leg).
What are 2 blood collection sites typically used for hamsters?
Blood collection sites for hamsters are intracardiac and posterior orbital venous sinus.
What are 3 general health problems afflicting hamsters?
General health problems for hamsters include: antiobiotic toxicity, impacted cheek pouches, and proliferative ileitis.
What is the nickname for proliferative ileitis?
The nickname for proliferative ileitis is "wet tail".
What are the clinical signs of proliferative ileitis?
Clinical signs of proliferative ileitis are: dehydration, very wet form of diarrhea, and emaciation.
What is proliferative ileitis?
Proliferative ileitis is an infection or inflammation of ileum, which has an extremely high rate of mortality.
What are 3 common infections in hamsters?
Common infections in hamsters is salmonellosis, Tyzzers disease, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis.
What are some of the clinical signs of Tyzzers disease?
Clinical signs of Tyzzers disease are diarrhea and dehydration, with disease occurring fast, often resulting in death within 48 hours.
How is lymphcytic choriomeningitis transmitted to guinea pigs?
Transmission of lymphcytic choriomeningitis usually occurs during gestation, but can be caused by milk consumption of infected animal or entry of virus into a wound.
What animals are common carriers of lymphocytic choriomeningitis?
Common carriers of the viral infection lymphocytic choriomeningitis are mice, guinea pigs, and primates.
What are the clinical signs of lymphocytic choriomeningitis in hamsters?
Clinical signs of lymphocytic choriomeningitis include: lack of movement, limb extension, photophobia, and convulsions.
What is an external parasite of the hamster?
A common external parasite of the hamster is demodex, which is a mite, and also called "red mange".
What is the most common internal parasite of the hamster?
The most common internal parasite of the hamster is the tapeworm.
What is usually the intermediate host for transmitting tapeworms to hamsters?
A flea is usually the intermediate host for transmitting tapeworms to hamsters.
At what point does demodex start having a debilitating effect on hamsters?
Demodex is classified as normal flora for hamsters, but can change from normal status to infestation in animals with a weak immune system.
What are some of the characteristics of gerbils?
Characteristics of gerbils include: relatively quiet and clean, only produce a few drops of urine a day, and have the ability to establish themselves well in the wild.
What is the normal life span for gerbils?
The average life span for gerbils is 4 years.
What is the breeding life of a gerbil?
Gerbils can breed from the age of 10 weeks to 18 months.
How long is the estrus cycle of the gerbil?
The estrus cycle of the gerbil is 4 to 6 days.
How long is the gestation period of gerbils?
The gestation period of gerbils is 24 to 26 days.
What is the average litter size of gerbils?
The average litter size of gerbils is 4 to 6 young.
How are gerbils sexed?
The sex of gerbils can be determined by noting the greater urogenital distance in males than in females.
What methods of restraint are used for gerbils?
Gerbils can be picked up by base of tail or scruff.
What are 2 injections sites used for gerbils?
Injection sites used for gerbils include subcutaneous (in scruff or loose skin on abdomen) and intramuscular (in hind leg).
What blood collection site is used for gerbils?
Blood collection for gerbils is performed on lateral tail vein.
What is the most often seen general health problem in gerbils?
The most often seen health problem in gerbils is seizures, which occur in 20% of the gerbil population ranging from mild to severe with no long-term effects.
What 2 general health problems afflict gerbils?
Gerbils most commonly suffer from seizures and malocclusion.
What is the most common parasite seen with gerbils?
The most common parasite seen with gerbils is demodex.
What are 2 of the most common infections in gerbils?
The most common infections in gerbils are salmonellosis and Tyzzers disease.
What are some of the characteristics of a mouse?
Characteristics of mice include: one of most common animals used in research labs, male mice have distinct unpleasant odor due to urine, humans may be allergic to mice due to prolific dander, and nocturnal.
What are the 2 classifications of mice?
The 2 classifications of mice are ecological (which are germ free and used for research), and genetic (which are randomly bred creating inbred or hybrid types).
What is the average life span of mice in captivity?
The average life span for mice in captivity is 2 to 3 years.
What is the breeding life of mice?
The breeding life of mice is 8 weeks to 18 months.
What are some of the characteristics of the estrus cycle of mice?
Mice are polyestrus, continuously cycling all year long with each period lasting 4 to 5 days, and can initiate postpartum estrums 14 to 28 hours after parturition.
What is the gestation period for mice?
The gestation period for mice is 19 to 21 days.
How is mating of mice determined?
Evidence of mice mating is the expellation of a vaginal plug 24 hours postcopulation.
What is the litter size of mice?
The litter size for mice is 10 to 12 young.
What is an observable sign that a mouse is ready to give birth?
Close to parturition, the female mouse will make a larger and softer nest, usually 1 to 2 days before end of gestation.
What method is used to restrain mice?
Mice are restrained by grasping tail at midshaft or base, as well as by scruffing.
What are 3 common injection sites used for mice?
Common injection sites for mice are: subcutaneous (in scruff or loose abdominal skin), intramuscular (in hind leg), and intravenous (in lateral tail vein).
What blood collection site is used for mice?
Blood collection for mice is performed using the lateral tail vein.
What are 4 general health problems of mice?
General health problems for mice include: antibiotic toxicity, facial balding, rectal prolapse, and MOBS.
What are the causes of rectal prolapse in mice?
Rectal prolapse in mice is caused by infection or infestation in intestines, and most commonly seen in younger mice.
What causes facial balding in mice?
Facial balding in mice is caused by something in the cage environment rubbing the hair off the face.
What are 3 infections commonly seen in mice?
Common infections in mice are Tyzzers disease, mycoplasmosis, and epizootic diarrhea.
How is mycoplasmosis transmitted?
Mycoplasmosis is transmitted through aerosolization, direct contact, or transmittal from mother to baby through placenta.
What are the clinical signs of mycoplasmosis?
Clinical signs of mycoplasmosis include occular and nasal discharge, coughing, wheezing, and sneezing.
What is a clinical sign of EDIM or epizootic diarrhea of infant mice?
A clinical sign of EDIM is soft stringy yellow diarrhea.
How is EDIM transmitted?
EDIM is transmitted by direct contact, fecal/oral, aerosolization, and inhalation of infected dust particles.
What are 3 common parasites of mice?
Common parasites of mice are the mouse louse, pinworms, and tapeworms.
What are the medical issues caused by the mouse louse?
The mouse louse can cause anemia, allopecia, debilitation, and possibly death.
What are the characteristics of rats?
Characteristics of rats include: no gall bladder, have ospenis, widely used in research, very healthy and easy to maintain, less aggressive than mice, relatively inexpensive to maintain, and will escape but return for food and water.
What is the breeding life of a rat?
The breeding life of a rat is 3 months to 14 months, and in that period, they can have 6 to 10 litters.
What is the estrus cycle of a rat?
Rats are polyestrus, and have an estrus cycle of 4 to 5 days.
What is the gestation period for a rat?
The gestation period for a rat is 20 to 21 days.
What is the litter size for rats?
The litter size for rats is 6 to 12 young.
How is pregnancy diagnosed in rats?
Pregnancy is diagnosed by excretion of a vaginal plug 12 to 24 hours postcopulation, and mammary development 14 days later.
How are rats sexed?
Rats are sexed by noting the greater relative urogenital distance in males than in females, as well as nipple formation in 8 to 15 days in females and testicular growth in males in the same time frame.
How are rats restrained?
Rats are restrained by placing hand over rib cage and restraining head with index finger and thumb behind mandibles, as well as grasping tail for a very short time.
What is an important key to feeding and nutrition in rats?
In providing proper feeding and nutrition to rats, diet changes must be gradual, diet should be consistent, and be aware that rats are picky eaters.
What are the 4 injection sites used for rats?
Injection sites used for rats are: subcutaneous (in scruff), intraperitoneal (in posterior quadrant of abdomen), intramuscular (in hind leg), and intravenous (in lateral tail vein).
What are 4 blood collection sites used for rats?
Blood collection sites for rats are: lateral tail vein, jugular, intracardiac, and quick.
What are 2 general health problems in rats?
General health problems in rats are mammary tumors and ringtail.
What are the manifestations of ringtail?
Ringtail is caused by low humidity in habitat, and causes constrictions in tail in rings which can result in necrosis.
What are 4 infections seen in rats?
Infections seen in rats are: mycoplasma pulmonisis, streptococcus penumoniae, Tyzzers disease, and sialodacryoadenitis.
What is the nickname for mycoplasma pulmonisis?
The nickname for mycoplasma pulmonisis is "CRUD", which is an acryonym for chronic respiration disease.
What are the clinical signs for "CRUD"?
Clinical signs for "CRUD" are sneezing and coughing with a reddish discharge from nose or eyes.
Why is streptococcus a public health issue?
Streptococcus is a public health issue because it is a zoonosis causing pneumonia, otitis, sinitus, and meningitis.
What are the clinical signs for streptococcus?
Clinical signs for streptococcus are: dyspnea, weight loss, respiratory issues, and depression.
What is sialodacryoadenitis?
Sialodacryoadenitis, or SDAV, is caused by the corona virus.
What are the clinical signs for SDAV?
Clinical signs for SDAV include swollen eyes and glands.
What are common parasites of rats?
Common parasites of rats are lice and tapeworms.
What are characteristics of chinchillas?
Characteristics of chinchillas are: nocturnal, female larger and more dominant, open-rooted, require a once weekly dust bath, has more hair per square inch than any other animal, and denseness of fur will not support fleas.
What is the life span of a chinchilla?
The life span of a chinchilla in captivity is 15 to 20 years.
When do chinchillas become sexually mature?
Chinchillas become sexually mature at 6 months.
What is the estrus cycle of chinchillas?
The estrus cycle of chinchillas lasts for 28 to 32 days.
What is the gestation period of chinchillas?
The gestation period of chinchillas is 111 days.
What is the litter size of chinchillas?
The litter size of chinchillas is 1 to 5 fully mature young.
How are chinchillas sexed?
Chinchillas are sexed by noting the greater urogenintal difference in males in comparison to females.
What are 5 general health problems of chinchillas?
General health problems of chinchillas are pseudomonis, salmonella, giardia and coccidia, ringworm, and hairballs.
What is the nomenclature of ferrets?
The nomenclature of ferrets is described as: a male is a hob, a female is a jill, and young are kits.
What are some general characteristics of ferrets?
General characteristics of ferrets include: susceptible to human influenza, allergic to fleas, have musk gland at base of tail, no sweat glands, susceptible to canine distemper, burrow, and are outlawed in CA.
What is the life span of a ferret?
Average life span for a ferret is 6 to 7 years.
Why are ferrets outlawed in California?
Ferrets are outlawed in California because negligent treatment of owners has created mean animals, and when let loose they become a vermin problem.
What is urolithiasis?
Urolithiasis is common in young males due to their anatomic structure in which diets high in calcium create stones and blockage in their small urethras.
What is the recommended distemper vaccination schedule for ferrets?
Ferrets should be vaccinated against distemper at 6 weeks and 8 weeks of age, and should obtain an annual booster.
When do ferrets reach sexual maturity?
Ferrets usually reach sexual maturity one year after birth, most commonly occurring in spring.
Why is spaying of ferrets recommended at 5 to 6 months of age?
Spaying of ferrets of 5 to 6 months of age is recommended because of their proclivity for prolonged estrus which can cause anemia and bone strength loss.
What is the gestation period for ferrets?
The gestation period for ferrets is 42 days.
What is the litter size of ferrets?
The typical litter size of ferrets is 7 to 8 kits, and ferrets can have up to two litters yearly.
What is the advantage in scruffing a ferret when using restraint?
Scruffing a ferret releases endorphins causing a sleep-like state.
What are the 3 injection sites used for ferrets?
Injection sites used for ferrets are: subcutaneous (in scruff), intramuscular (in hind leg), and intravascular (in jugular).
What are 2 blood collection sites used for ferrets?
Blood collection sites used for ferrets are intravascular (in jugular) and quick.
What are the normal vital sign values for a ferret?
Normal vital signs for a ferret are temperature of 100 to 104 degrees, resting heart rate of 32 to 36, and heart rate of 216 to 242.
What are 2 types of cancers common in ferrets?
Cancers common in ferrets are adrenal carcinomas and insulinomas.
What is insulinomas?
Insulinomas is a tumor of the pancreas, resulting in hypoglycemia which can cause seizures and coma.
What are 2 common categories of birds?
Birds are categorized as either psittacine (parrot types) and ornithine (finches & canaries).
What are general characteristics of birds?
General characteristics of birds include: requiring social interaction with other birds or owner or will die from lack of socialization, need to have beaks and wings and nails trimmed, and stress levels must be kept at a minimum.
What are some of the reproductive characteristics of birds?
Reproductive characteristics include: testicles of male are abdominal, females will only develop left uterine horn, and fertilization of egg occurs in horn.
What are of the restraint procedures to remember in handling birds?
Restraint notes include: use hand or arm depending on size, approach from behind, use towels as a great restraining aid, calm a bird in dark quiet space, restrain talons on raptors, and remember birds will bite.
What are some general rules concerning proper feeding and nutrition for avians?
Proper avian feeding and nutrition requires: grit available to keep gizzard and digestive system healthy, keep food and water sources clean, make any dietary changes gradually, and feed dish should always be full due to high metabolism.
What are 2 common injection sites used for birds?
Common injection sites used for birds are: intramuscular (in pectoral muscles) and intravenous (in wing vein).
What are 2 common blood collection sites for avians?
Common blood collection sites for avians are toe nail quick and wing vein.
What are 5 common infections in avians?
Common infections in avians are: pip, sour crop, eggbound, beak & feather disease, and psittacosis.
What is the pip infection?
The pip infection is located in the preening gland which has become dehydrated and impacted, and must be treated by expressing the gland.
What is sour crop?
Sour crop is a condition in avians in which the crop of bird has become impacted or infected and food is not moving thru.
What is eggbound?
Eggbound is a condition in birds in which the egg is lodged inside the body and is caused by a deficiency of calcium.
What is beak and feather disease?
Beak and feather disease is a viral disease which manifests arounds the head, resulting in bird losing feathers around beak.
What are 2 common parasites of avians?
Common parasites of avians are lice and mites, causing legs and feet to become extremely scaly.
What are 3 orders of reptiles?
Chelonians (turtles, tortoises, and terrapins), Crocodilian (alligators and crocodiles), and Squamata (lizards and snakes) are different orders of reptiles.
What are general characteristics of reptiles?
General characteristics of reptiles include: being poikilothermic, having internal fertilization, covered in scaly skin, having common opening for reproduction and urinary and fecal functions, and ability to grow thru entire life span.
What are reproductive characteristics of chelonians?
Reproductive characteristics of chelonians include: males having a larger tail and body structure than females, females having curvature in plastron, and males having an indentation in plastron.
What is a unique reproductive characteristic of crocodilians?
A unique reproductive characteristic is that the incubation temperature of eggs determines the sex.
What are important housing conditions to maintain for reptiles?
Reptiles requiring housing with one end designated as warm/dry and the other as cool/moist with a pool of water large enough for animal to immerse, uv lights to provide light and warmth, secure lid, nontoxic bedding, and easy to clean surfaces.
What are 3 common injection sites for reptiles?
Injection sites for snakes and lizard include intravascular (in caudal tail vein) and intramuscular (in upper body), and for turtles intravascular (in jugular vein).
What are 4 common infections in reptiles?
Common infections in reptiles are mouthrot, respiratory infection, dysecdysis, and salmonella.
What is mouthrot?
Mouthrot is a condition in which tissues inside of mouth are dying and usually caused by bacteria, and is treated by removing dead tissue and swabbing with disinfectant.
What is dysecdysis?
Dysecdysis is a condition in which reptile has trouble shedding, normally observed with opaque layer over eyes with dull skin and diminished appetite.
What is a clinical sign of respiratory infection in reptiles?
Clinical signs of respiratory infection in reptiles are blowing bubbles when breathing, difficulty breathing, and rattling in lungs.