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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
____ is the most efficient and cost effective method of controlling infectious disease
Vaccination
True or False

Immunoglobulins can also be used as a diagnostic procedure
True
List the three vaccine types
attenuated(live), killed(inactive), and toxoid
Why aren't virulent microbes normally used for vaccine purposes?
They cause disease
The process of reducing virulence is called ____.
attenuation
Modified live viral vaccines trigger a cell mediated response with mostly ___ and ____.
Th1 cells and cytotoxic cells
What is it called when vaccinated individuals infect those around them?
herd immunity
What are the two types of inactivated vaccines?
whole agent vaccines and subunit vaccines
_____ are substances that increase the effective antigenicity of a vaccine.
Adjuvants
Inactivated vaccines stimulate a ____ repsonse which promotes ____ mediated immunity.
Th2, antibody
_____ are chemcially or thermally modified toxins that are used in vaccines to sitimulate active immunity.
Toxoid Vaccines
The most common vaccine-associated problem is ____.
Mild toxicity
Another vaccine-associated problem is _____.
Anaphylactic shock
The third vaccine-associated problem is...
residual virulence
In passive immunity,___ is used for collection of antibodies.
Antiserum
_____ are tumor cells created by fusing antibody-secreting plasma cells with cancerous plasma cells called myelomas.
Hybridomas
_______ are identical antibodies secreted by clones originating form a singple plasma cell.
monoclonal antibodies
What type of immunization should be used when protection against a recent infecion is needed quickly?
Passive
Define serology
the study and diagnostic use of antigen-antibody interactions in blood serum.
What are some forms of immune testing?
Precipitation tests
Agglutination tests
Neutralization tests
The complement Fixation Test
Labeled Antibody Test
Western Blot Test
Give two types of techniques used in precipitation tests
immunodiffusion
immunoelectrophoresis
True or False

It is impossible to make anti-antibodies that specifically target a particular class of antibody
False; it is possible
What can diagnosticians determine from immunoelectrophoresis?
They can demonstrate the absence of a normal antigen or they can detect the presence of excessive amounts of antigen.
What is the difference between agglutination and precipitation?
Agglutination involves the clumping of insoluble particles whereas precipitation involves the aggregation of soluble molecules.
What is used to determine blood types?
hemagglutination
Titration is a method that:
measures antibody levels in blood sera
In a titration, the highest dilution of serium giving a positive reaction is called a ____.
Titer
Give two examples of neutralization tests
viral neutralization
viral hemagglutination inhibition
Describe a positive and negative result of a complement fixation test
Positive = cloudy
negative = transparent red
What is an important dye used in fluorescent antibdoy tests?
fluorescein
Direct fluorescent antibody tests identify the ____
presence of antigen in a tissue
What does ELISA stand for?
Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay
______ assays are rapid ELISAs based on the use of antibodies bound to a membrane filter rather than polystyrene plates
Immunofiltration