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45 Cards in this Set

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Microbes present at a given place and time that is undesirable
The removal or destruction contaminants
Generally applies only to inanimate objects and those essential to well-being- surgical instruments, syringes, packaged foods
can be used to inanimate objects (disnfectants) or skin (antiseptics)
any cleaning that removes microoganisms to reduce the contamination levels to meet public health standards- Washing dishes and clothes
Factors affecting Microbial death
Number, Type, temperature, Ph of the environment, concentration of the agent, presence of solvents, interfering organic matter and inhibitors
Mode of action affects what
1. The cell wall
2. The cell membrane
3. DNA/Protein synthesis
4. DNA transcription
5. DNA replication
6. Affects protein functions
Mode of action affects the protein function by doing this two things to the protein?
Denaturation and coagulation
What is Denaturation and Coagulation
-Involves the breaking of bonds within the protein to discrup its structure

-Aggregation of protein resulting in a non-functioning mass
What are the methods of physically controlling microoganisms
1. Moist heat
2. Dry heat
3. Cold Treatment
4. Desiccation-drying
5. Radiation
6. Filtration
7. Osmotic Pressure
Methods of moist heat control
1. Steam under pressure
2. Boiling water
3. Pasteurization
Requirements for steam under pressure as a method of moist heat control
- Heat can only reach 100 degree under normal pressure, incrasing pressure allows for higher temps and better microe killing.
- Destroyes both vegitative cells and spores
- Autoclava- device used for steam- heat sterilization
- Affective only at sterilizing heat resistant materials as cloth, glass ware and any material that will be sidcarded like plastic
-Not effective in sterlizing substabces that repel or absorb moisture like oil, powder
Requirements for boilling water as a method of moist heat control
1. Relied in for disnifection
not sterilization
2. 10 minutes will kill all
non-spore forming
pathogens and most viruses
3. Used by many decontanimate
suspect drinking water
Requirements for pasteurization as a method of moist heat control
1. This is a techinique in which heat treatment is used to reduce the number of spoilage organisms and kill disease-causing organisms but not thermophilic ones
2. Increases the self life of food without altering the quality of the food
Requirements for incineration as a method of dry heat
1. Uses heat to reduce the microbe to gas and ash
2. Hospitals often use icineration to eliminate their infectious waste material
Requirement for dry oven as a method of dry heat control
1. Electric coils radiate heat within an enclosed compartment
2. Used for heat-resistant materials that cannot be sterilized with moist heat some glass ware powder, oils and metallic instruments.
Requirement for desiccation drying as a method of dry heat control
1. Inhibits growth by removing water
2.Lyophilization- mixture of freezing and drying which is used to preserve food
What are the two types of radiation that control microoganisms?
1. Ionizing radiation
2. Non ionizing radiation
Causes and usage of ionizing radiation
1. Causes biological damage by producing rective molecules when they transfer their energy to a microoganism
2.used in the sterilization of commercial food priducts and medical equipment
Causes and usage of noionizing raditation
1. Causes covalent bonds to form between adjecent thymine molecules in DNA theymine dimers
2. UV radiation is the primary example- excellent for disinfectiong air and commonly seen in lights found in hospital, operating rooms, schools, nursing homes, cafeterial and military housing.
Filtration as a method of physical control of microoganism
Involves the passage of these substances through filters perforated with precise uniform pores
2. used to prepare liquids that control cannot withstand heat- serum and other blood products, vaccines, IV fluids, and enzymes.
- It also been used to sterrilize beer and milk without altering flavor
Osmotic presure as a method of physical control of microoganism
1.Involves the use of salt or suger to create a hypertonic environment
2. Results in water leaving the cell, inhibiting cellular processes
Types of germicidal chemicals
1. Phenol 2. Alcohols
3. alogens 4.Peroxygens
5. Surfactants 6.metal compo
7. Aldehydes 8.Biguanines
9. Ethylene oxide
Phenol- Germicidal chemical
Effective against vegetative cells but not spores or naked virus
Alcohols- Germicidal chemical
1. Effective against vegative cells but not spores or naked virus
2. Isopropanol and ethanol are most commonly used in 70-90% mixures
3. Work by denaturing proteins and disrupting cell membrane
Halegens- Germicidal Chemical
1. Effective against vegatative cells and some spores and virus
2. Used to disnifect inanimate object, drinking water, and wastewater
3. Example iodine, chlorine, bdromine and fluorine
Peroxygens- Oxidizing agens
- Germicidal chemical
1. Especially effecive against anaerobic organisms in deep wounds
2.Are used to treat water and to eliminate spores on opens surfaces
3. Ex peroxides, ozone, paracetic acid
surfactants- cationic detergents- Germicidal chemical
1. Generally work well against vegetative cells and enveloped viruses but not spores
2. Work by decreasing the surface tenstion between solvents allowing the solvent to more effective dissolve the solute and disrupt the cell membrane
eg. soaps, detergents and mouth wash
Metal Compounds- Germicidal chemical
-1. Generally just slows growth but do not destroy the microbe
2. It works by binding with sulfure in amino acids and altering the proteins shape thus inhibiting or eliminating its function
- Silver,mercury, zinc and copper
- Most are too toxic to he used medically
1. Effective against all forms of microbial life
2. Work by denaturing protein and inactivating nucleic acids
- ex. glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde
- Used in antiseptic skin creams, disnfectants and mouthwashes
Ethylene Oxide
1. Gaseous agent that destroys all microbes by reaching with proteins
Mechanisms of Action of Antimicrobial drugs
1. Inhibit cell wall synthesis
2. Inhibit protein synthesis
3. inhibit nucleic acid
4. Inhibit metabolic pathways
5. Inhibit cell membrane
6. Antimicrobial resistance
Which antimicrobial drugs inhibit cells wall synthesis
- Beta-lactam drugs which includes penicillins and cephalosporins
Which drugs inhit protein synthesis
- Antibiotics target the prokaryotic 30s and 50s ribosome subunits to bloock translation and they include aminoglycosides, tetracyclines and macrolides
Which medication nucleic acid synthesis
1. Antibiotics target enzymes required for replication and transcription and they include floroquinolones and rifamycins
Which medication inhibits metabolic pathways
Includes sulfonamides and trimethoprim
Which medication inhibits cell membrane integrity
-Polymyxin B binds to the membrane of gram-negative cells and alters their permeability
Types of Antimicrobial resistance
1. VRE- Vancomycin-resistant enteroccoci
2. MRSA- Methicilin-resistant staphylococcus aureus
What does VRE DO?
which inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis and is used as last resort for life threatening infctions
What does MRSA DO?
-It has acquired penicillinase and penicillin-binding proteins for beta-lactam drugs
Mechanism of action of antiviral drugs do
1. Inhibit viral uncoating
2. Inhibit nucleic acid synthesis
3. Inhibit assembly and release of viral particles
Which are the effective antiviral drugs that inhibit viral coating
-They only affect drugs are amantadine and rimantadine and they block influenza A virus
What do the antiviral drugs that inhibit nucleic acid synthesis do?
1. Nuclioside analogs by incopoarting into DNA and cause termination eg. ACYCLOVIR, GANCICLOVIR (HERPESVIRUS)
2.Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (HIV) and this drugs are AZT, Didanosine (DDL) and Lamivudine (31c)
What happenes when the antiviral drugs inhibit assembly and release viral particles
- They target enzymes like protease inhiborts (HIV) and neuraminidase inhibitors (influenza virus) this enzymes are necessary for the production and release of virus