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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
complement system
A group of proteins that coat bacteria and help to kill them directly or assisst in having them taken up by neutrophils in the blood or by macrophages in the tissues.
latent period
A stage of infection that begins when a pathogenic agent enters the body and ends when the agent can be shed or communicated.
incubation period
The stage of infection during which an agent reproduces; it begins with invasion of the agent and ends when the disease process begins.
communicability period
A stage of infection that begins when the latent period ends and continues as long as the agent is present and can spread to other hosts.
disease period
A stage of infection that follows the incubation period; the duration of this stage varies with the disease.
arterial bood gas
Dissolved gases in the arterial circulation. Generally consists of: pH, pCO2, PO2, HCO3, oxygen saturation, and hemoglobin.
normal pH
normal pCO2
35-45 mmHg
normal pO2
80-100 mmHg
normal HCO3
24-30 mEq/L
normal SaO2
normal Hgb
12-18 g/dL
respiratory acidosis
Cause: increased PaCO2.
Compensation: increased HCO3.
respiratory alkalosis
Cause: decreased PaCO2.
Compensation: decreased HCO3.
metabolic acidosis
Cause: decreased HCO3.
Compensation: decreased PaCO2.
metabolic alkalosis
Cause: increased HCO3.
Compensation: increased PaCO2.
manual airway maneuvers
Manual manipulations of the airway, including head-tilt/chin-lift, jaw-thrust maneuver, and modified jaw-thrust.
basic mechanical airways
Nasopharyngeal airway; oropharyngeal airway.
rapid sequence induction (RSI)
Advanced airway technique; includes the use of sedation, anesthesia, neuromuscular blockade, oxygen therapy, and endotracheal intubation.
Grandview blade
Lanryngoscope blade with an 80% wider blade surface and anatomically appropriate curve for improved visualization.
Viewmax blade
Laryngoscope blade with built-in viewing tube and lens system that refracts images approximately 20 degrees from horizontal useful for intubation of very anterior airways.
gum elastic bougie
A straight, semirigid stylette-like device with a tip bent at about 30 degrees to facilitate difficult intubations. (Also called Eschmann tracheal tube.)
Burden nasoscope
A type of nasotracheal tube ausculatation device.
Beck airway airflow monitor (BAAM)
A device used to facilitate blind nasotracheal intubation in patients who are breathing.
BURP (Backward, Upward, Rightward Pressure) maneuver
Technique for facilitating visualization of the vocal cords during endotracheal intubation.
sky hook technique
A two-person technique facilitating visualization of the glottis in a seated or upright patient.
retrograde intubation
Intubation technique involving placing a needle into the patient's cricothyroid membrane through which a flexiblew wire is "snaked" upwards into the oropharynx, facilitating orotracheal intubation.
induction agents
Medications used for sedation, prior to paralysis, during RSI.
Medications used to blunt or attenuate various adverse side effects of neuromuscular blockers.
neuromuscular-blocking agents
Medications used to induce muscle relaxation, thus facilitating endotracheal intubation.
depolarizing blocking agent
Short-acting medicationd that depolarize the synaptic membrane of the muscle, causing total paralysis from 3 to 5 minutes.
nondepolarizing blocking agents
Medications that block acetylcholine's neurotransmitter action, rendering muscles flaccid without depolarizing the synaptic membrane.
rescue airways
Alternative airway management tools and technique used when endotracheal intubation (including RSI) fails.
Esophageal Tracheal CombiTube (ETC)
A dual-lumen airay device with a ventilation port for each lumen, designed for blind insertion that permits ventilation with BVM via either tube, as required.
pharygotracheal lumen (PtL) airway
A dual-lumen airway device designed for blind insertion that permits ventilation with BVM via either tube, as required.
laryngeal mask airway (LMA)
A noninvasive, single lumen airway device designed to occlude the supraglottic area and facilitate ventilation.
intubating laryngeal mask airway (LMA Fastrach)
A single lumen airway device designed to facilitate endotracheal intubation and ventilation.
Cobra perilaryngeal airway (PLA)
A single lumen airway device designed to occlude the supraglottic area and facilitate ventilation.
Ambu laryngeal mask (ALM)
A supraglottic, single-use, disposable airway designed for insertion when maintaining neutral position is desired.
King LT airway
A supraglottic, reusable airway that stabilizes the airway at the base of the tongue, via the inflation of a large silicone cuff.
difficult airway
A clinical situation in which a conventionally trained paramedic experiences difficulty with mask ventilation and/or endotracheal intubation.
Mallampati classification system
Four "class" level airway assessment for use in conscious patients, defined by the ability to visualize all, part, or none of the tonsilar pillars and/or the uvula.
Cormack and Lehane classification system
Four "grade" level airway assessment for use in unconscious patients, defined by the ability to visualize all, part, or none of the glottic opening and/or the vocal cords.
POGO classification system
Airway assessment used by some EMS personnel to rate the percentage of glottic opening (POGO) one can visualize from "0" to "100" percent (all).
pulse oximetry
Use of an electronic device to measure hemoglobin-oxygen saturation in peripheral tissues.
recordings or displays of exhaled CO2 measurements.
The visual representation of the expired CO2 waveform.
automatic transport ventilators
Compact mechanical ventilators that can be used in out-of-hospital transport.