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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
facilitating movement
facilitating sensation
equilibration of ion concentration resulting in impulse conduction
pumping of ions out of cell resulting in return to baseline
transmit impulses to the eventual destination from neurons
chemical substances that enhance or inhibit nerve impulses
the immediate protective covering of the brain and spinal cord
above the tentorium
below the tentorium
Broca's area?
speech area of the cerebrum responsible for formation of words
Wernicke's area?
speech area of the cerebrum enabling processing of words into coherent thought (association)
major "relay station" for the central nervuos system
part of the autonomic nervous system and essential part of intellectual function
hypophysis? (pituitary gland)
gland which releases hormones under the regulation of the hypothalamus
reticular activating system?
cells in the brainstem which control awareness and alertness
part of the brain which controls physical movement
situated on the same side
circle of Willis?
ring of arteries at the base of the brain
blood-brain barrier?
keeps certain certain substances from passing from the blood into brain tissue
cerebrospinal fluid?
fluid surrounding and cushioning the brain and spinal cord
gray matter?
neuron cell bodies
white matter?
myelinated axons
ascending tracts?
tracts originating in the spinal cord and ending in the brain
descending tracts?
tracts beginning in the brain and ending the spinal cord
afferent pathway?
nerve branch carrying sensory information to the spinal cord
efferent pathway?
nerve branch carrying motor impulses to the muscles of the body
represent sensory input from spinal nerves to specific areas of the skin
clusters of nerves
sensory input from a specific peripheral location which account for a change in the motor impulses going to that location independent of mediation in the cerebral cortex
autonomic nervous system?
system comprised of the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system
decrease in hearing, especially for high-pitched sounds
client who is awake and responsive
awareness of "person, place, and time" in the client
remote memory?
long-term memory
recall memory?
recent memory
immediate memory?
new memory
touch discrimination?
ability to determine location of a touch
awareness of body position
opposite side
pronator drift?
fall of arm with palm turned inward; caused by muscle weakness due to cerebral or brainstem damage
Romberg sign?
client sways when eyes closed but not when eyes are open
deep tendon reflexes?
reflexes of the biceps, triceps, brachioradialis, quadriceps, and Achilles tendon
cutaneous reflexes?
plantar and abdominal reflexes
Babinski's sign?
dorsiflexion of the great toe and fanning of the other toes associated with CNS disease
sudden, brief, jerking contraction of a muscle or muscle group
Glasgow Coma Scale?
establishes baseline data in three areas: eye opening, motor response, and verbal response
abnormal posturing seen in the client with lesions that interrupt the corticospinal pathways
abnormal posturing and rigidity associated with dysfunction in the brainstem area
Pupils should be Equal in size, Round and Regular in shape, and react to Light and Accommodation
direct response?
pupil constriction due to light stimulus
consensual response?
constriction of pupil due solely to constriction in the other pupil and not stimulus
cerebral angiography?
injection of contrast medium into artery to identify aneurysms, injuries, strictures/occlusions, tumors, and arteriovenous malformations
computed tomography (CT) scanning?
method of diagnosing neurological problems using pictures taken at many horizontal levels which are combined to give a 3D image of the brain or spinal cord
positron emission tomography (PET)?
diagnostic method which yields information about the function of the brain, specifically glucose and oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow
single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)?
method useful for studying cerebral blood flow, stroke, dementia, AIDS, amnesia, neoplasms, head trauma, seizures, persistent vegetative state, brain death, and psychiatric disorders
magnetic resonance angiography?
MRI test used to identify arterial blockages, intracranial aneurysms, and arteriovenous malformations
magnetic resonance spectroscopy?
MRI test used to detect abnormalities in the brain's biochemical processes
lumbar puncture (spinal tap)?
insertion of a spinal needle into the subarachnoid space between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae to obtain data or inject medications
spinal headache?
severe, throbbing headache associated with a decrease in cerebrospinal fluid
electroencephalography (EEG)?
test recording the electrical activities of the cerebral hemispheres
electromyography (EMG)?
test recording the electrical activity of peripheral nerves by testing muscle activity
combination of electromyography and electroneurography
brain scan?
imaging study involving the injection of a radioactive substance in order to detect pathologic conditions
transcranial Doppler?
test used to evaluate intracranial hemodynamics