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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which lobe contains the motor cortex associated with:
judgement
reasoning
voluntary eye movement
voluntary skeletal movements
fine repetitive motor move-
ments
frontal lobe
Which lobe is responsible for
processing sensory data as it is received. Assists in the interpretations of tactile sensations (temp.pressure, pain, two point discrimination) as well as visual, taste, olfactory, auditory...recognition of body parts and awareness of body position (proprioception)?
parietal lobe
Which lobe is the primary vision center and provides interpretation of visual data?
occipital lobe
Which lobe is responsible for the perception and interpretation of sounds and determination of their source. Also involved with taste, smell, and balance.
temporal lobe
Cervical spinal nerves
C1 to C8
these nerves (eight pairs) supply the back of the head, the neck and shoulders, the arms and hands, and the diaphragm
Thoracic spinal nerves
T1 to T12
these nerves (12 pairs) supply the chest, some muscles of the back, and parts of the abdomen
Lumbar spinal nerves
L1 to L5
these nerves (five pairs) supply the lower parts of the abdomen and the back, the buttocks, some parts of the external genital organs, and parts of the legs
Sacral spinal nerves
S1 to S5
these nerves (five pairs) supply the thighs and lower parts of the legs, the feet, most of the external organs, and the area around the anus
What are IMMEDIATE symptoms of concussion?
amnesia
memory loss
difficulty concentrating
headache
sensitivity to light and
dizziness
What are DELAYED symptoms of concussion?
sleep disturbance
fatigue
depression
fogginess
More than ____ of concussions occur outside of organized sports and many individuals even return to high-risk activities before the it has healed.
80%
The _____ component of treatment of a concussion is to be examination by your physician.
first
The _____ component is to avoid activities that could produce a _____ concussion.
second
second
_____ is really the only thing a patient can do who's undergone a concussion.
Rest...nothing can speed recovery up
A major symptom that may accompany a concussion is?
hemorrhage...due to severed blood vessels in the brain...look for deterioration of function
What are 2 types of concussions?
simple
complex
What is a simple concussion?
initial symptoms don't last more than a few minutes and will clear in about 24 hours...any physical activity might cause headache, dizziness, foggy thinking
What is a complex concussion?
If simple concussion symptoms return, then it's a complex concussion...
extends beyond 15 minutes or where individual experiences a loss of consciousness (however brief)...
takes a minimum of 7 days to clear
Following concussion, the individual should not return to high-risk activity until he or she has been _____ ____
symptom free for at least one week
If symptoms of the concussion persist beyond a _____ ____, it means that the brain has not healed itself
2 weeks
Persistent symptoms of concussion are referred to as___ ____ _____...no treatment available
post concussion syndrome
What is Bell's Palsy?
a LMN lesion of CN VII which occurs at or beyond the stylomastoid foramen
Characteristic indications of a LMN lesion or Bell's Palsy includes the following, on the affected side?
marked facial asymmetry
atrophy of facial muscles
eyebrow droop
smoothing out of forehead
and nasolabial folds
drooping of the mouth corner
uncontrolled tearing
loss of efferent limb of
conjunctival reflex
(cannot close eye)
lips cannot be held tightly
together or pursed
difficulty keeping food in
mouth while chewing on
the affected side
What causes Bell's palsy?
not been pinpointed...may be herpes simplex 1 virus
With Bell's palsy, most doctors assume that some process causes swelling of the 1_____ ____.
Because the facial nerve passes through a narrow, bony area within the _____, any swelling of the nerve causes it to be 3_______ against the skull's hard, bony surface. This interferes with the 4 _____ functioning.
1 facial nerve
2 skull
3 compressed
4 nerve's
Known causes of facial palsy are?
viral infections
shingles
Lyme disease
ear infections
compression of the facial
nerve by a benign tumor
called an acoustic neuroma
multiple sclerosis
Signals for voluntary movement of the facial muscles originate in the 1____ _____ (in association with other coritical areas) and pass via the 2______ in the posterior limb of the internal capsule to the 3____ ____ of CN VII. Fibers pass to both the 4_____ and contralateral motor nuclei of CN VII in the causal pons
1 motor cortex
2 corticobulbar tract
3 motor nuclei
4 ipsilateral
Define spastic hemiparesis?
the affected leg is stiff and extended with plantar flexion of the foot; movement of the foot results from pelvic tilting upward on the involved side...the foot is dragged, often scraping the toe, or it is circled stiffly outward and forward (circumduction); the affected arm remains flexed and adducted and does not swing
Define spastic diplegia (scissoring)?
the patient uses short steps, dragging the ball of the foot across the floor; the legs are extended, and the thighs tend to cross forward on each other at each step, due to injury to the pyramidal system
Define steppage?
the hip and knee are elevated excessively high to left the plantar flexed foot off the ground; the foot is brought down to the floor with a slap; the patient is uanble to walk on the heels
Define dystrophic (waddling)?
the legs are kept apart, and weight is shifted from side to side in a waddling motion due to weak hip abductor muscles; the abdomen often protrudes, and lordosis is common
Define tabetic?
the legs are positioned far appart, lifted high and forcibly brought down with each step the heel stamps on the ground
Define cerebellar gait (cerebellar ataxia)?
the patient's feet are wide-based; staggering and lurching from side to side are often accompanied by swaying of the trunk
Define sensory ataxia?
the patient's gait is wide-based; the feet are thrown forward and outward, bringing them down first on heels, then on toes; the patient watches the ground to guide or her steps; a positive Romberg sign is present
Define Parkinsonian gait?
the patient's posture is stooped and the body is held rigid; steps are short and shuffling, with hesitation on starting and difficulty stopping
Define dystonia?
jerky dancing movements appear nondirectional
Define ataxia?
uncontrolled falling occurs
Define antalgic limp?
the patient limits the time of weight bearing on the affected leg to limit pain
Upper abdominal superficial reflex
T7, T8, and T9
Lower abdominal superficial reflex
T10 and T11
Cremasteric superficial reflex
T12, L1, and L2
Plantar superficial reflex
L4, L5, S1, and S2
Biceps deep tendon reflex
C5 and C6
Brachioradial deep tendon reflex
C5 and C6
Triceps deep tendon reflex
C6, C7, and C8
Patellar deep tendon reflex
L2, L3, and L4
Achilles deep tendon reflex
S1 and S2
Scoring Deep Tendon Reflexes
0
1
1+
2+
3+
4+
0 no response
1+ sluggish or diminished
2+ active or expected respons
3+ more brisk than expected,
slightly hyperactive
4+ brisk, hyperactive, with
intermittent or
transient clonus
Characteristics of upper
motor neuron?
muscle spasticity, possible
contractures
little or no muscle atrophy,
but decreased strength
hyperactive deep tendon and
abdominal reflexes;
absent plantar reflex
no fasiculations
damage above level of brain-
stem will affect opposite
side of body
paralysis of lower part of
face, if involved
Characteristics of lower motor neuron?
muscle flaccidity
loss of muscle tone and
strength; muscle atrophy
weak or absent deep tendon,
plantar, and abdominal
reflexes
fasciculations
changes in muscles supplied
by that nerve, usually a
muscle on the same side as
the lesion
Bell palsy, if face involved;
coordination unimpaired