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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Term used for a lack of energy?
Term used for average affect and activity?
Term used for pervasive alterations in emotions that are manifested by depression, mania, or both.
mood disorders...also called affective disorders
Term used for a distinct period during which the mood is abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable. The period lasts 1 week (unless hospitalized and treated sooner)
At least 3 of the following symptoms accompany the manic episode?
inflated self-esteem or
decreased need for sleep..
pressured speech..
flight of ideas..
increased involvement in
goal-directed activity or
psychomotor agitation..
excessive involvement in
activities with a high
potential for painful
possible delusions..
possible hallucinations
Term used for unrelenting, rapid, often loud talking without pauses
pressured speech
Term used for racing thoughts, often unconnected
flight of ideas
Term to describe a period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood lasting 4 days and including 3 or 4 of the additional symptoms described earlier.
Hypomanic episodes do not impair the person's ability to _____?
(may be quite productive)
A person having a hypomanic episode has NO _____ features.
psychotic (delusions and hallucinations)
A MIXED episode is diagnosed when the person experiences both _____ and _____ nearly every day for at least 1 week. These episodes are called _____-_____.
Bipolar disorder is diagnosed when a person's mood cycles between extremes of ____ and ____.
Term describing the process by which seizure activity in a specific area of the brain is initially stimulated by reaching a threshold of the cumulative effects of stress,
low amounts of electric impulses or
chemicals such as cocaine that sensitize nerve cells and pathways. These highly sensitized pathways respond by no longer needing the stimulus to induce seizure activity, which now occurs spontaneously.
It is theorized that kindling may underlie the cycling of mood disorders as well as _____.
Which group of drugs inhibit kindling, explaining their efficacy in treating bipolar disorder?
Which level of neurotransmitters may be deficient in depression and increased in mania?
Term for life-threatening condition that may develop when taking the antidepressants called MAOIs and mixing it with tyramine-containing foods and fluids or other medications?
hypertensive crisis
The ______ ______ are used infrequently because of potentially fatal side effects and interactions with numerous drugs, both prescription and OTC preparations. The most serious side effect is hypertensive crisis.
antidepressant MAOIs
Symptoms of hypertensive crisis are? (11)
occipital headache
nuchal rigidity
dilated pupils
motor agitation
Symptoms of hypertensive crisis can lead to? (3)
cerebral hemorrhage
The MAOI-tyramine interaction produces symptoms within ___ to ____ minutes after ingestion.
20 to 60 minutes
For hypertensive crisis, transient antihypertensive agents such as ____ ____ are given to dilate blood vessels and decrease vascular resistance.
phentolamine mesylate
Term describing slow body movements, slow cognitive processing, and slow verbal interaction?
psychomotor retardation
Term used when clients take up to 30 seconds to respond to a question.
latency of response
Term used to describe increased body movements and thoughts?
psychomotor agitation
Term to describe losing any sense of pleasure from activities they formerly enjoyed?
Having the same repeated thoughts and going over them repeatedly is termed?
A hallmark sign of a manic episode is ___ ___, which means unrelentingly rapid and often loud speech without pauses. The client will interrupt others and cannot listen to others. The client ignores verbal cues indicating that others wish to speak and they continue with constant intelligible or unintelligible speech, turning from one listener to another or speaking to no one at all. If interrupted, clients with mania often start over from the beginning.
pressured speech
Term used to decribe cognitive ability or thinking that is confused and jumbled with thoughts racing one after another.
Clients cannot connect concepts and jump from one subject to another.
2______ and 3_____ also characterize thinking. At times, clients may be unable to communicate thoughts or needs in ways that others understand.
1 flight of ideas
2 circumstantiality
3 tangentiality
Although the usual mood of manic people is 1 _____, emotions are unstable and can fluctuate (2_____ _____) readily between euphoria and hostility.
1 elation
2 labile emotions
Clients with mania can become hostile to others whom they perceive as standing in the way of desired goals. They cannot postpone or delay gratification. Give an example (opera ticket)?
Manic Client: You are the most wonderful woman in the world. Give me $50 so I can buy you a ticket to the opera."
Wife: "No!"
Client: (snarls) "You're cheap and selfish." (tries to strike her)
Term to describe thinking about killing oneself.
suicidal ideation
The nurse NEVER ignores any hint of _____ _____ regardless of how trivial or subtle it seems and the client's intent or emotional status.
suicidal ideation
Depressed clients who begin taking an _____ may have a continued or increased risk for suicide in the first few _____ of therapy.
The client on antidepressants may experience an _____ in energy from the antidepressant but remain depressed.
A client on antidepressants with increased energy may make clients more likely to act on _____ tendencies and be able to carry them out.
Because antidepressants take several weeks to reach their ____ effect, clients may become discouraged and act on suicidal ideas because they believe the medication is not helping them.
It is extremely IMPORTANT to monitor the ____ _____ of depressed clients until risk has subsided.
suicidal ideation
Name the major symptoms of depressive disorder? (9)
depressed mood..
anhedonism (joyless)..
unintentional weight change
of 5% or more in a month..
change in sleep pattern..
agitation or psychomotor
worthlessness or guilt
inappropriate to the
situation (possibly
difficulty thinking,
focusing, or making
hopelessness, helplessness,
and/or suicidal ideation
A syndrome that occurs when there is an inadequate washout period between taking MAOIs and SSRIs or when MAOIs are combined with meperidine.
serotonin syndrome
Symptoms of serotonin syndrome include? (3)
change in mental state:
confusion, agitation
neuromuscular excitement:
muscle rigidity, weakness,
sluggish pupils, shivering,
tremors, myoclonic jerks,
collapse, muscle paralysis
Autonomic abnormaliies:
hyperthermia, tachycardia,
tachycardia, tachypnea,
Which 2 groups of drugs are potentially lethal when taken in overdose?
To decrease this risk depressed or impulsive clients who are taking any antidepressants in these two categories may need to have prescriptions and refills in limited amounts.
cyclic compounds
Name the numerous drugs that interact with MAOIs and can be potentially fatal? (11)
SSRI antidepressants
tricyclic antidepressants
Term meaning a tendency to view everything in polar categories, i.e., all-or-none, black-or-white.
absolute, dichotomous thinking
Term meaning to draw a specific conclusion without sufficient evidence, i.e., jumping to (negative) conclusions
arbitrary inference
Term meaning to focus on a single (often minor) detail while ignoring other, more significant aspects of the experience, i.e., concentrating on one small (negative) detail while discounting positive aspects
specific abstraction
Term to form conclusions based on too little or too narrow experience, i.e., if one experience was negative, then ALL similar experiences will be negative
Over- or undervaluing the significance of a particular event, i.e., one small negative event is the end of the world or a positive experience is totally discounted.
magnification and minimalization
Term which is the tendency to self-reference external events without basis, i.e., believing that events are directly related to one's self, whether they are or not.