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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
List 8 conditions that may be associated with hypertension.
Chronic renal failure
Coarctation of the aorta
Hyperthyroidism
Cushing's syndrome
Acromegaly
Conn's syndrome
Phaeochromocytoma
Polycystic ovarian syndrome
Simple obesity
Diabetes mellitus
List 4 conditions that my be associated with hypotension.
Addison's disease
Panhypopituitarism
Hypothyroidism

Phaeochromocytoma
Hyperthyroidism
Chronic renal failure
List 4 conditions that may be associated with weight loss.
Addison's disease
Hyperthyroidism
Phaeochromocytoma
Panhypopituitarism
Diabetes mellitus
List 4 conditions that may be associated with hyperglycaemia.
Diabetes Mellitus
Cushing's syndrome
Acromegaly
Phaeochromocytoma
Polycystic ovarian syndrome
List 4 conditions that may be associated with oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhoea.
Chronic renal failure
Acromegaly
Cushing's syndrome
Polycystic ovarian syndrome
Panhypopituitarism
List 4 conditions that may be associated with reduced growth.
Panhypopituitarism
Chronic renal failure
Hypothyroidism
Cushing's syndrome
List some conditions that may be associated with muscle weakness and fatigue.
Addison's disease
Cushing's syndrome
Hyperparathyroidism

Chronic renal failure
Coarctation of the aorta
Hyperthyroidism
Hypothyroidism
Acromegaly
Conn's syndrome
Phaeochromocytoma
Hypoparathyroidism
Polycystic ovarian syndrome
Panhypopituitarism
Simple Obesity
Diabetes mellitus
Diabetes insipidus
List 6 conditions that may be associated with reduced fertility.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome
Cushing's syndrome
Panhypopituitarism
Chronic renal failure
Hyperthyroidism
Hyperparathyrodism
Simple obesity
Diabetes mellitus
List 6 conditions that may be associated with polyuria & polydipsia.
Cushing's syndrome
Acromegaly
Conn's syndrome
Hyperparathyroidism
Polycystic ovarian syndrome
Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Insipidus
List the two most useful tests to diagnose Cushing's syndrome.
24 hour urinary cortisol
Dexamethasone suppression test
List the two most useful tests to diagnose hyperthyroidism.
TSH
free T3 & T4
What are 4 methods of controlling hyperthyroidism?
Beta-adrenoceptor blocker
Surgical removal of gland
Radio-active iodine
Neomercazole/thionamide
What are two agens you would use to treat an infant with a salf losing form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia?
Prednisolone or dexamethosone
Mineralocorticoid
List some risks of thyroid surgery.
Infection
Hypoparathyroidism
Hypothyroidism
Recurrent laryngeal nerve damage
Laryngeal obstruction
List some risks of pituitary surgery.
Infection
Hypothyroidism
Hypoadrenalism
Meningitis
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Carotid-cavernous fistula
Define Chromosomal sex.
Presence of Y chromosome for male sex
Define Gonadal sex.
Presence of testes for male sex
Define Hormonal sex.
Physiological level of male hormone giving male secondary sex characteristics
What is the percentage of couples experiencing infertility in Australia?
15%
A cause for male infertility is abnormal sperm production. What are some characteristics of abnormal sperm production?
Most cases are not amenable to treatment
They can relate to karyotypic abnormality
They may be acquired from having an infection like mumps
They can be seen in Klinefelter's syndrome

The Y chromosome is important in sperm production.
What are the important semen characteristics for fertility?
Semen volume
Semen pH
Sperm concentration
Motility
Normal forms
White blood cells
Sperm antibodies
What are values of the important semen characteristics needed for fertility?
Semen volume - over 2mL
Semen pH - 7.2-7.8
Sperm concentration - over 20million/ml
Motility - over 50%
Normal forms - over 15%
White blood cells - less than a million/ml
Sperm antibodies - absent
What are the reasons why increasing age reduces fecundity?
Increased miscarriage rate
Increased prematurity rate
Increased fetal abnormality rate
Increased operative delivery rate
Increased perinatal death rate

Increasing age does not reduce fecundity because of increased gonadal hormone levels
What is ICSI and when can it be used?
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection

I can be used when there are very low sperm levels or only sperm in testes.

Can collect a sperm and inject it directly into an egg to enable fertilization in vitro.
What will give a perfet APGAR score?
Colour - pink
Pulse - over 100/min
Reflex response to suctioning nose - cough, pull away or squeeze
Muscle tone - active movement
Respiration - Good strong cry