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293 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ankyl/o
stiff joint
arthro/o
joint
articul/o
joint
burs/o
sac
carp/o
wrist
cervic/o
neck
chondr/o
cartilage
clavicul/o
clavicle,collarbone
coccyg/o
coccyx, tailbone
cost/o
rib
crani/o
skull, head
femor/o
femur, thigh bone
fibul/o
fibula, smaller outer bone of lower leg
humer/o
humerus, upper arm bone
ili/o
illium, part of hipbone
ishi/o
ischium, part of hipbone
kyph/o
hump
lamin/o
lamina, part of vertebra
lord/o
swayback, curve
lumb/o
loin, lower back
mandibul/o
mandible, jawbone
maxill/o
maxilla, upper jawbone
metacarp/o
metacarpals, hand bones
metatars/o
metatarsals, foot bones
myel/o
bone marrow
orth/o
straight
oste/o
bone
patell/o
patella, knee cap
ped/o
foot
pelv/o
pelvis
phalang/o
phalanges, bones of fingers and toes
pub/o
pubis, part of hip bone
radi/o
radius, lower arm bone
sacr/o
sacrum
scapul/o
scapula, shoulder bone
scoli/o
crooked, bent
spondyl/o
vertebrae, backbone
stern/o
sternum, breastbone
synovi/o
synovial membrane
tars/o
ankle
thorac/o
chest
tibi/o
tibia, inner bone of lower leg
uln/o
ulna, lower arm bone
vertebr/o
vertebra, backbone
-blast
immature, embryonic (osteoblast)
-clasia
to surgically break (osteoclasia)
-desis
stabilize, fuse (arthrodesis)
-listhesis
slipping (spondylolisthesis)
-malacia
softening (osteomalacia)
-porosis
porous (osteoporosis)
-scopy
procedure to visually examine (arthroscopy)
-tome
instrument to cut (osteotome)
What serves as the body's frame, protects vital organs, and stores minerals?
bones
Where is the site of blood cell production?
bone marrow
What is the place where two bones meet?
joint
What are bones also called?
osseus tissue
What is the process of bone formation, that begins before birth?
ossification
What is the fetal skeleton formed from?
cartilage model
What is the flexible tissue of the cartilage model gradually replaced by?
osteoblasts (immature bone cells)
What do osteoblasts mature into?
osteocytes
How many bones are in the human body?
206
What are the two divisions of the human skeleton?
axial skeleton, appendicular skeleton
What general areas are included in the axial skeleton?
head, neck, spine, chest, trunk
The head or skull is divided into what two parts?
cranium, facial bonesf
What does the cranium cover?
brain
What do the facial bones cover?
mouth, nose, and eyes
What cranial bone is located at the forehead?
frontal bone
What bone located at the upper sides of the cranium and at the roof of the skull?
parietal bone
What bone is at the back and base of the skull?
occipital
What bone is at the sides and base of the cranium?
temporal bone
What is the bat-shaped bone that forms part of the base of the skull, floor, and the sides of the eye orbit?
sphenoid bone
What bone forms part of the eye orbit, nose, and floor of cranium?
ethmoid bone
What facial bone is located at the inner corner of each eye?
lacrimal
What facial bone forms part of the nasal septum and the support bridge of the nose?
nasal bone
What facial bone is the upper jaw?
maxilla
What facial bone is the lower jawbone, which is also the only movable bone of the skull?
mandible
What facial bone is the cheekbone?
zygomatic bone
What facial bone forms the base of the nasal septum?
vomer bone
What facial bone is the hard palate of the mouth and the floor of the nose?
palatine bone
What single bone is U-shaped and suspended between the mandible and larynx?
hyoid bone (point of attachment for swallowing and speech muscles)
What does the trunk of the body consist of?
vertebral column, sternum, and rib cage.
What are the five sections of the vertebral column?
cervical vertebra, thoracic vertebra, lumbar vertebra, sacrum, coccyx
What are the neck vertebrae called, and how many are in that region?
cervical, 7
What are the chest vertebrae called, and how many are in that region?
thoracic, 12
What are the low back vertebrae called, and how many are in that region?
lumbar 5
What vertebrae become fused into one triangular-shaped flat bone at the base of the vertebral column?
sacrum
What are the five very small vertebrae attached to the sacrum?
coccyx
How many pairs of ribs are attached at the back, or at the spinal column?
12
What are the two pairs of ribs that are not also attached to the breastbone called?
floating ribs
What are the first superior, seven rib pairs called?
true ribs
What are the last, most inferior 3 rib pairs called?
false ribs
What is the most superior region of the breastbone called?
manubrium
What is the most inferior, pointed region of the breastbone called? (opposite of the manubrium)
xiphoid process
Of what general regions does the appendicular skeleton consist of?
upper extremities, lower extremetities, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle
What are the two bones of the pectoral girdle?
clavicle, scapula (functions to attach teh upper extremity to the axial skeleton)
What bones make up the upper extremity?
humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges
What is the pelvic girdle also called?
os coxae or innominate bone (hip bone)
What three parts make up the os coxae?
illium, ischium, pubis
What bones make up the lower extremities?
femur, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges
What bone is also know as the collarbone?
clavicle
What bone is also know as the shoulder blade?
scapula
What is the bone of the upper arm?
humerus
What is the forearm bone on thumb side of the lower arm?
radius
What is the forearm bone on the little finger side of the lower arm?
ulna
What are the bones of the wrist?
carpal
What are the bones in the palm of the hand?
metacarpals
What are the finger bones?
phalanges
The hipbone is also know as the what?
os coxae
What is the upper leg bone called?
femur
What bone is the knee cap?
patella
What is the shin bone also known as?
tibia
What is the thinner long bone of the lower leg?
fibula
What are the ankle and heel bones called?
tarsals
What are the fore foot bones?
metatarsals
What are the toe bones?
phalanges
What are the four major categories of bone?
long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones
What are examples of long bones?
humerus, femur
What are examples of short bones?
carpals and tarsals
What is an examples of an irregular bone?
vertebrae
What is an example of a flat bone?
sternum, scapulae, pelvis
What is the central portion of a long bone?
diaphysis
What are the ends of a long bone?
epiphysis
What is the thin connective tissue layer covering most bones?
periosteum
What does the periosteum contain?
blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic vessels
What is the dense, hard, exterior surface of bones called?
compact, cortical
What name of bone is on the inside?
cancellous, spongy
What manufactors most blood cells, and where is it found?
red bone marrow, spongy bone area
What is the space in the middle, inside of the diaphysis?
medullary cavity
What is in the medullary cavity?
yellow bone marrow
What is a bony projection?
process
What is the large ball-shaped end of a long bone?
head
What refers to a smooth rounded portion at the end of a bone?
condyle
What refers to a projection located above or on a condyle?
epicondyle
What refers to the large process on teh femur for the attachment of a muscle?
trochanter
What refers to any rough process that provides the attachment for tendons and muscles?
tubercle
What refers to a hollow cavity within a bone?
sinus
What refers to a smooth round opening for nerves and blood vessels?
foramen
What refers to a shallow cavity or depression on the surface of a bone?
fossa
What refers to a slit type opening?
fissure
What is the place where two or more bones meet?
articulation
What are the three types of joints?
synovial, cartilaginous, fibrous
Which type of joint is most common?
synovial
What are synovial joints enclosed by?
joint capsule
What lubricates the joint, and what secretes this?
synovial fluid, synovial membrane
What are the ends of a bone in a synovial joint enclosed in?
articular cartilage
What type of joint is found at the shoulder and at the hip?
ball and socket
What strong connective tissue binds bone together at the joint?
ligaments
What is a sac like structure composed of connective tissue and lined with synovial membrane?
bursa
What are the most common bursa locations?
elbow,knee,shoulder
Which type of joint allows almost no movement?
fibrous
What in the skull is an example of a fibrous joint?
sutures
What type of joint allows for slight movement but holds bone firmly in place with a solid piece of cartilate?
cartilaginous
What is an example of a cartilaginous joint?
pubic symphysis
What is a mass of bone tissue formed at a fracture site?
callus
What is the noise produced by bones or cartilage rubbing together?
crepitation
What is a bone spur known as?
exostosis
What is the abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine? (hunchback)
kyphosis
What is the abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine?(swayback)
lordosis
What is the branch of medicine dealing with the musculoskeleton?
orthopedics
What is a physician specializing in the musculoskeleton?
orthopedist
What is a brace or splint used to prevent or correct deformities?
orthotics
What is a person skilled in making or fitting orthotics?
orthotist
Who is specialized in treating disorders of the feet?
podiatrist
What is an artificial device used to substitute a missing limb?
prosthesis
Who is specialized in prosthesists?
prosthetist
Inflammatory spinal condition resembling arthritis, results in gradual stiffening and fusion of vertebrae
ankylosing spondylitis
inflammation of the bursa of the great toe
bunion
pain caused by compression of the nerve as it passes between teh bones and ligaments of the wrist
carpal tunnel syndrome
a fracture in which there is no open skin wound (simple fracture)
closed fracture
a common type of wrist fracture
colles
fracture in which the bone is shattered splintered or crushed into many small pieces
comminuted fracture
occurs when the bones of a joint are displaced from normal alignment
dislocation
malignant growth found in shaft of long bone, spreads through periosteum
ewing's sarcoma
inflammation of a joint caused by excessive uric acid
gout
fracture with incomplete break
greenstick fracture
herniation or protrusion of intervertebral disc
herniated nucleus pulposus
fracture in which bone fragments are pushed into each other
impacted fracture
maligment tumor originating in bone marrow
myeloma
fracture at an angle to the bone
oblique fracture
arthritis resulting in degeneration of bones and joints
osteoarthritis
most common type of bone cancer, begins in osteocytes at end of long bones
osteogenic sarcoma
softening of bones
osteomalacia
decrease in bone mass, become porous
osteoporosis
common metabolic disease of teh bone from unknown causes, bone destruction and deformity
paget's disease
fracture caused by disease or weakened bone
pathologic fracture
chronic form of arthritis
rheumatoid
deficiency in calcium and vitamin D found in early childhood, causing deformities, in legs
rickets
abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
scoliosis
a congenital anomaly that occurs when a vertebra fails to fully form around the spinal cord
spina bifida
narrowing of the spinal canal
spinal stenosis
fracture line spirals around shaft, twisting injury, slower to heal
spiral fracture
forward sliding of lumbar vertebra over vertebra below it
spondylolisthesis
a degenerative condition of teh vertebral column
spondylosis
damage to ligaments surrounding a joint due to overstretching,
strain
chronic inflammatory disease of connective tissue that causes injury to the joints, skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, and nervous system.
systemic lupus erythematosus
congenital deformity of the foot (clubfoot)
talipes
complete fracture that is straight across the bone at right angles to the long axis of the bone
transverse bone
injury to bones in the cervical spine as a result of sudden movement forward and backward
whiplash
diskectomy
removal of a herniated intervertebral disk
laminectomy
removal of the vertebral posterior arch to correct severe back problems
correcting a fracture by realigning the bone fragments
reduction
surgical immobilization of adjacent vertebrae
spinal fusion
medications that reduce the reabsorption of bone(osteoporosis and paget's)
bone reabsorption inhibitors
hormone produced by adrenal cortex, strong anti-inflammatory
corticosteroids
AE
Above elbow
AK
ABOVE KNEE
BDT
bone density testing
BE
below elbow
BK
below knee
C1, C2
first cervical etc. etc.
CDH
congenital dislocation of the hip
CTS
carpal tunnel syndrome
DJD
degenerative joint disease
FX, Fx
fracture
HNP
herniated nucleus pulposus
JRA
juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
LAT, lat
lateral
LE
lower extremity
LLE
left lower extremity
LUE
left upper extremity
NSAID
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
OA
osteoarthritis
ORIF
open reduction, internal fixation
orth, ortho
orthopedics
RA
rheumatoid arthritis
RLE
right lower extremity
RUE
right upper extremity
SLE
systemic lupus erythematosus
THA
total hip arthroplasty
THR
total hip replacement
TKA
total knee arthroplasty
TKR
total knee replacement
TMJ
temporomandibular joint
TX, Tx
traction, treatment
UE
upper extremity
the point at which a nerve contacts a muscle
myoneural junction
three types of muscle tissue
skeletal, smooth, cardic
layers of connective tissue wrapping muscle
fascia
fascia tapering at each end of a skeletal muscle
tendon
fasci/o
fibrous band
fibr/o
fibers
leiomy/o
smooth muscle
muscul/o
muscle
my/o
muscle
myocardi/o
heart muscle
myos/o
muscle
plant/o
sole of foot
rhabdomy/o
skeletal muscle
ten/o
tendon
tend/o
tendon
-asthenia
weakness
-kinesia
movement
-trophy
development, nourishment
ab-
away from
ad-
toward
circum-
around
"straight abdominal muscle"
rectus abdominis
the less moveable of the two bones
origin
more moveable bone
insertion (for muscle)
the way muscles are arranged around joints
antagonistic pairs
movement away from midline
abduction
movement toward midline
adduction
act of bending or being bent
flexion
movement that bring limb in straight position
extension
backward bending
dorsiflexion
pointing toes downward
plantar flexion
turning outward
eversion
turning inward
inversion
to turn backward
pronation
to turn upward (hand, foot)
supination
raise body part, shrug shoulders
elevation
downward movement , drooping shoulders
depression
movement in a circular direction from a central pint
circumduction
moving thumb away from palm
opposition
moving around a central axis
rotation
scar tissue forming in fascia surrounding a muscle
adhesion
abnormal shortening of muscle, making it difficult to stretch
contracture
sudden involuntary contraction
spasm
severe neck spasms pulling ones head to one side
torticollis
condition with widespread aching and pain in teh muscles and soft tissue
fibromyalgia
cyst on tendon sheath
ganglion
type of muscular dystrophy, muscle tissue is replaced by fatty tissue
pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy
damage to muscle or soft tissue to to overuse or overstretching
sprain
muscle enzyme found in skeletal and cardiac muscle
creatine phosphokinase
muscle contraction in response to strectch caused by striking with reflex hammer
deep tendon reflexes
study and record of teh strength and quality of muscle contractions
electromyography
removal of muscle tissue for pathological examination
muscle biopsy
CPK
creatine phosphokinase
DTR
deep tendon reflex
EMG
electromyogram
IM
intramuscular
MD
muscular dystrophy
ROM
range of motion