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228 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ankyl/o
stiff joint
arthr/o
joint
articul/o
joint
burs/o
sac
carp/o
wrist
cervic/o
neck
chondro/o
cartilage
clavicul/o
clavicle, collarbone
coccyg/o
coccyx, tailbone
cost/o
rib
crani/o
skull, hear
femor/o
femur, thigh bone
fibul/o
fibula, smaller outer bone of lower leg
humer/o
humerus, upper arm bone
ili/o
ilium, part of hipbone
ischi/o
ischium, part of hipbone
kyph/o
hump
lamin/o
lamina, part of vertebra
lord/o
swayback, curve
lumb/o
loin, lower back
mandibul/o
mandible, jawbone
maxill/o
maxilla, upper jawbone
metacarp/o
metacarpals, hand bones
matatars/o
metatarsals, foot bones
myel/o
bone marrow
orth/o
straight
oste/o
bone
patell/o
patella, knee cap
ped/o
foot
pelv/o
pelvis
phalang/o
phalanges, bones of the fingers and toes
pub/o
pubis, part of hipbone
radi/o
radius, lower arm bone
sacr/o
sacrum
scapul/o
scapula, shoulder blade
scoli/o
crooked, bent
spondyl/o
vertebrae, backbone
stern/o
sternum, breastbone
synovi/o
synovial membrane
tars/o
ankle
thorac/o
chest
tibi/o
tibia, inner bone of lower leg
uln/o
ulna, lower arm bone
vertebr/o
vertebra, backbone
-blast
immature, embryonic
ex. osteoblast
-clasia
to surgically break
ex. osteoclasia
-desis
stabilize, fuse
ex. arthrodesis
-listhesis
slipping
ex. spondylolisthsis
-malacia
softening
ex. osteomalacia
-porosis
porous
ex. osteoporosis
-scopy
procedure to visually examine
ex. arthroscopy
-tome
insturment to cut
ex. osteotome
condyle
a smooth rounded portion at the end of a bone
epicondyle
a projection located above or on a condyle
trochanter
the large rough process on the femur for the attachment of a muscle
tubercle
a rough process that provides the attachment for tendons and muscles
tuberosity
rough process that provides the attachment of tendons and muscles
sinus
hollow cavity within a bone
foramen
a smooth round opening for nerves and blood vessels
fossa
consists of a shallow cavity or depression on the surface of a bone
fissure
slit-type opening
arthralgia
joint pain
arthrocentesis
puncture to withdraw fluid from a joint
arthroclasia
surgically breaking a joint
arthrodesis
fusion of a joint
arthritis
joint inflammation
arthrotomy
incision into a joint
bursectomy
excision of a bursa
bursitis
inflammation of a bursa
bursolith
stone in a bursa
chondrectomy
excision of cartilage
chondromalacia
cartilage softening
chondroplasty
surgical repair of cartilage
intracranial
pertaining to inside the skull
craniotomy
incision into the skull
myeloma
bone marrow tumor
osteocarcinoma
cancerous bone tumor
osteochondroma
bone and cartilage tumor
osteoclasia
to surgically break a bone
osteomalacia
bone softening
osteomyelitis
inflammation of bone and bone marrow
osteotomy
incision into a bone
osteopathy
bone disease
osteotome
instument to cut bone
intervertebral
pertaining to between vertebrae
callus
mass of bone tissue that forms at a fracture site during its healing
crepitaion
noise produced by bones or cartilage rubbing together in conditions such as arthritis
exostosis
bone spur
kyphosis
abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine
lordosis
abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine
orthopedics
branch of medicine specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions of the musculoskeletal system
orthopedist
physician who specializes in treatment of condition of the musculoskeletal system
orthotics
a brace or splint used to prevent or correct deformities
orthotist
person skilled in making and fitting orthotics
podiatrist
specialist in treating disorders of the feet
prosthesis
artificial device that is used as a substitute for a body part that is either congenitally missing or is absent as a result of accident or disease
prosthetist
person who fabricates and fits prostheses
ankylosing spondylitis
inglammatory spinal condition that resembles rheumatoid arthritis, results in gradual stiffening and fusion of the vertebrae
bunion
inflammation of the bursa of the great toe
carpal tunnel syndrome
pain caused by compression of the nerve as it passes between the bones and ligaments of the wrist
closed fracture
a fracture in which there is no open skin wound, simple fracture
Colles' fracture
a common type of wrist fracture
comminuted fracture
fracture in which the bone is shattered, splintered, or crushed into many small pieces or fragments
compound fracture
fracture in which the skin has been broken through to the fracture, open fracture
dislocation
occurs when the bones in a joint are displaced from their normal alignment
Ewing's sarcoma
malignant growth found in the shaft of long bones that spreads through the periosteum, removal is treatment of choice, because this tumor will metastasize or spread to other organs
fracture
a broken bone
gout
inflammation of the joints caused by excessive uric acid
greenstick fracture
fracture in which there is an incomplete break, one side of bone is broken and the other side is bent
herniated nucleus pulposus
herniation or protrusion of an intervertebral disk
impacted fracture
fracture in which bone fragments are pushed into each other
myeloma
malignant tumor orginating in the bone marrow
oblique fracture
fracture at an angle to the bone
open fracture
fracture in which the skin has been broken through to the fracture
osteoarthritis
arthritis resulting in degeneration of the bones and joints, especially those bearing weight, results in bone rubbing against bone
osteogenic sarcoma
the most commone type of bone cancer, usually begins in osteocytes found at the ends of long bones
osteomalacia
softening of the bones caused by a deficiency of calcium
osteoporosis
decrease in bone mass that results in a thinning and weakening of the bone with resulting fractures, the bone becomes more porous, especially in the spine and pelvis
Paget's disease
a fairly common metabolic diesease of the bone from unknown causes, it usually attacks middle-aged and elderly people and is characterized by bone destruction and deformity
pathologic fracture
fracture caused by disease or weakened bone
rheumatoid arthritis
chronic form of arthritis with inflammation of the joints, sweeling, stiffness, pain, and changes in the cartilage that can result in crippling deformities
rickets
deficiency in calcium and vitamin D found in early childhood that results in bone
scoliosis
abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
simple fracture
a fracture in which there is no open skin wound
spina bifida
a congenital anomaly that occurs when a vertebra fails to fully form around the spinal cord
spinal stenosis
narrowing of the spinal canal causing pressure on the cord and nerves
spinal fracture
fractue in which the fracture line spirals around the shaft of the bone, can be caused by a twisting injury and is often slower to heal than other types of fractures
spondylolisthesis
the forward sliding of a lumbar vertebra over the vertebra below it
spondylosis
a degenerative condition of the vertebral column
strain
damage to the ligaments surrounding a joint due to overstretching, but no dislocation of the joint
systemic lupus erythematosus
chronic inflammatory disease of connective tissue that causes injury to the joints, skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, and nervous system, characteristic butterfly rash or erythema may be present
talipes
congenital deformity of the food, clubfoot
transverse fracture
complete fracture that is straight across the bone at right angles to the long axis of the bone
whiplash
injury to the bones in the cervical spine as a result of a suddent movement forward and backward of the head and neck
arthography
visualization of a joint by radiographic study after injection of a contrast medium into the joint space
arthroscopy
examination of the interior of a joint by entering the joint with an arthroscope, torn ligaments can be repaired while the patient is undergoing arthroscopy
bone scan
patient is given a radioactive dye and the scanning equipment is used to visualize bones, useful in observing progress of treatments for osteomyelitis and cancer metastases to the bone
myelpgraphy
study of the spinal column ofter injecting opaque contrast material, useful in identifying herniated nucleus pulposus
photon absorptionmetry
measurement of bone density using an intrument for the purpose of detecting osteoporosis
amputation
partial or complete removal of a limb for a variety of reasons, including tumors, gamgrene, intractable pain, crushing injury, or uncontrollable infection
arthroscopic surgery
use of an arthroscope to facilitate performing surgery on a joint
bone graft
use of an arthroscope to facilitate performing surgery on a joint
bunionectomy
removal of the bursa at the joint of the great toe
carpal tunnel release
surgical cutting of the ligament in the wrist to relieve nerve pressure caused by carpal tunnel syndrome, which can result from repetitive motion such as typing
cast
application of a solid material to immobilze an extremity or portion of the body as a result of a fracture, dislocation, or severe injury
diskectomy
removal of a herniated intervertebral disk
laminectomy
removal of the vertebral posterior arch to correct severe back problems and pain caused by compression of a spinal nerve
reduction
correcting a fracture by realigning the bone fragments, closed reduction is doing this manipulation without entering the body, open reduction is the process of making a surgical incision at the site of the fracture to do the reduction, necessary when bony fragments need to be removed
spinal fusion
surgical immobilization of adjacent vertebrae
total hip replacement
surgical reconstruction of a hip by implanting a prosthetic or artificial hip joint
total knee replacement
sugical reconstruction of a knee joint by implanting a prosthetic knee joint
bone reabsorption
conditions that result in weak and fragil bones, such as osteoporosis and Paget's disease, are improved by medications that reduce the reabsorption of bones
calcium supplements and Vitamin D therapy
maintaining high blood levels of calcium in association with vitamin D helps maintain bone density and treats osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and rickets
corticosteroids
a hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that has very strong anti-inflammatory properties, useful in treating rheumatoid arthritis
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
a large group of drugs including aspirin and ibuprofen that provide that provide mild pain relief and anti-inflammatory benefits for conditions such as arthritis
fasci/o
fibrous band
fibr/o
fibers
leiomy/o
smooth muscle
muscul/o
muscle
my/o
muscle
myocardi/o
heart muscle
myos/o
muscle
plant/o
sole of foot
rhabdomy/o
skeletal muscle
ten/o
tendon
tend/o
tendon
tendin/o
tendon
-asthenia
weakness
ex. myasthenia
-kinesia
movement
ex. bradykinesia
-trophy
development, nourishment
ex. hypertrophy
ab-
away from
ex. abduction
ad-
toward
ex. aduction
circum-
around
ex. circumduction
abduction
movement away from the midline of the body
adduction
movement toward midline of the body
flexion
act of bending or being bent
extension
movement that brings limb into or toward a straight condition
dorsiflexion
backward bending, as of hand or foot
plantar flexion
beding sole of foot, pointing toes downward
eversion
turning outward
inversion
turning inward
pronation
to trun downward or backward as with the hand or foot
supination
turning the palm or foot upward
elevation
to raise a body part, as in shrugging the shoulders
depression
a downward movement, as in dropping the shoulders
circumduction
movement in a circular direction from a central point
opposition
moving thumb away from palm, the ability to move the thumb into contact with the other fingers
rotation
moving around a central axis
fasciitis
inflammation of fascia
fasciorrhaphy
suture fascia
fasciotomy
incision into fascia
leiomyofibroma
fibrous smooth muscle tumor
leiomyoma
smooth muscle tumor
electromyogram
record of muscle electricity
myopathy
muscle disease
myoplasty
surgical repair of muscle
myorrhaphy
suture a muscle
polymyositis
inflammation of many muscles
rhabdomyolysis
skeletal muscle destruction
rhabdomyoma
skeletal muscle tumor
tendynia
tendon pain
tenomyopathy
disease of tendons and muscle
tenorrhaphy
suture a tendon
tendoplasty
surgical repair of tendon
tendotomy
incision into tendon
tendinitis
inflammation of tendon
tendinous
pertaining to tendons
bradykinesia
slow movement
dyskinesia
difficult or painful movement
hyperkinesia
excessive movement
atrophy
lack of development
dytrophy
difficult (poor) development
hypertrophy
excessive development
adhesion
scar tissue forming in the fascia surrounding a muscle, making it difficult to stretch the muscle
contracture
an abnormal shortening of a muscle, making it difficult to strecth the muscle
spasm
a sudden, involuntary, strong muscle contraction
torticollis
severe neck spasms pulling the head to one side, wryneck, or crick in the neck
fibromyalagia
a condition with widespread aching and pain in the muscles and soft tissue
ganglion
cyst that forms on tendon sheath, usually on hand, wrist, or ankle
lateral epicondylitis
inflammation of the muscle attachment to the lateral epicondyle of the elbow, caused by strong gripping, tennis elbow
muscular dystrophy
inherited disease causing a progressive degeneration, weakness, and atrophy
psuedohypertrophic muscular dystrophy
one type of inherited muscular dystrophy in which the muscle tissue is gradually replaced by fatty tissue, making the muscle look strong
sprain
damage to the muscle and soft tissue due to overuse of overstretching
creatine phosphokinase
a muscle enzyme found in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle, blood levels become elevated in disorders such as heart attack, muscular dystrophy, and other skeletal muscle pathologies
deep tendon reflexes
muscle contraction in response to a stretch caused by striking the muscle tendon with a reflex hammer, test used to determine if muscles are responding properly
electroyography
study and record of the strength and quality of muscle contractions as a result of electrical stimulation
muscle biopsy
removal of muscle tissue for pathological examination
muscle relaxants
medication to relax skeletal muscles in order to reduce muscle spasms, antispasmodics