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52 Cards in this Set

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process of building up complex materials (proteins) from simple materials.
anabolism
process of breaking down complex materials (foods) to form simpler substances and release energy.
catabolism
structure surrounding the protecting the cell. It determines what enters and leaves the cell.
cell membrane
Rod-shaped structures in the nucleus that contain regions of DNA called genes.
Chromosomes
all the material that is outside the nucleus and yet contained within the cell membrane.
cytoplasm
chemical found within each chromosome. Arranged like a sequence of recipes in code, it directs the activities of the cell.
DNA
structure (canals) within the cytoplasm. Site in which large proteins are made from smaller protein pieces. Ribosomes are found here.
endoplasmic reticulum
regions of DNA within each chromosome
genes
picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. The chromosomes are arranged in numerical order to determine their number and structure
karyotype
the total of the chemical processes in a cell. It includes both catabolism and anabolism.
metabolism
structures in the cytoplasm in which foods are burned to release energy
mitochondria
control center of the cell. It contains chromosomes and directs the activities of the cell.
nucleus
collection of fat cells
adipose tissue
flexible connective tissue attached to bones at joints.
cartilage
skin cells that cover the external body surface and line the internal surfaces of organs
epithelial cells
specialist in the study of tissues
histologist
voice box. Located at the upper part of the trachea.
larynx
throat. Serves as the common passageway for both food and air.
pharynx
endocrine gland at the base of the brain.
pituitary gland
endocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck
thyroid gland
windpipe. Tube leading from the throato the bronchial tubes.
trachea
one of the tubes, each leading from a single kidney to the urinary bladder.
ureter
tube from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
urethra
the womb. The organ that holds the embryo/fetus as it develops.
uterus
internal organs
viscera
space below the chest containing organs such as the liver, stomach, gallbladder, and intestines.
abdominal cavity
space in the head containing the brain and surrounded by the skull.
cranial cavity
muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities
diaphragm
pertaining to the back
dorsal (posterior)
centrally located space between the lungs
mediastinum
space below the abdomen containing portions of the intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs.
pelvic cavity
double-layered membrane surrounding the abdominal organs.
peritoneum
double-layered membrane surrounding each lung
pleura
space between the pleural membranes and surrounding each lung
pleural cavity
space within the spinal column (backbones) and containing the spinal cord.
spinal cavity
space in the chest containing the heart, lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, esophagus, and other organs
thoracic cavity
pertaining to the front. Front surface of the body
ventral (anterior)
away from the surface
deep
far from the point of attachment to the trunk or far from the beginning of a structure.
distal
vertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions
frontal (coronal) plane
below another structure; pertaining to the tail or lower portion of the body
inferior (caudal)
pertaining to the side
lateral
pertaining to the middle or near the medial plane of the body
medial
back surface of the body
posterior (dorsal)
lying on the belly, face down, palms down
prone
near the point of attachment to the trunk or near the beginning of a structure
proximal
lengthwise, vertical plane dividing the body or structure into right and left sides.
sagittal (lateral) plane
plane that divides the body into right and left halves
midsagittal plane
on the surface
superficial
above another structure; pertaining to the head
superior (cephalic)
lying on the back (face up, palms up)
supine
horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions
transverse (cross-sectional or axial) plane