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6 Cards in this Set

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Give some background info on the history if Islam.
A. Islam is a combination of Judaism and Christianity. Third of the religions of Abraham.

B. Muhammad was born in 570 C.E. born in Mecca.

C. orphaned at an early age. Raised by grandparents and uncle.

d. followed the trade routes of the middle east and north africa. mecca was the center of trade routes.

e. married at age 25 to a widow who was 40. They raised a family of 6 kids.

f. began his public life ministry at age 40 after a spiritual retreat.

g. stories of early life found in the HADITH which recorded the prophet's sayings (SUNNAH).

h. first teachings in Mecca in 622 C.E. where he was rejected and migration to medina in the same year.

i. first community est. in Medina in 622 C.E. until 630 C.E.

j. return to Mecca in 632 C.E. to firmly est. Islam and drive out the idol worshippers.

k. death of Muhammad in 632 C.E. and election of Abu Bakr as 1st Caliph.

l. never claimed superhuman powers and his devotion to the theme "There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet."
Describe the Quar'an - Revelations of the Prophet
it is the book of Islamic scripture. It consists of 114 chapters (surahs).

Messages over 23 years committed to memory. All were later written down by his followers. Stories from Jewish/Christian history.

Purified Christian belief of forgiveness. Only God can forgive sin.
What are the central teachings of Islam
A. oneness of God- there is no god but god (SHAHADAH).

b. Prophethood and compass of Islam. Muslims feel that Islam encompasses all religions and honors all prophets as messengers from God.

c. Human relationship to the divine. Everything created for a divine purpose.

d. the unseen life. Belief in spirits such as angels as messengers from god. (angel Gabriel)

e. the last judgement. after death there will be an accounting of one's deeds.

f. heaven and hell will prevail. just will be with god. nonbelievers will experience the torments of hell.
what are the groups within islam
a. sunnis- represent 80% of most muslims. they have elected leaders (caliphs). traditionalists and moderates who gather in the UMMAH (Islamic communities). mostly assoc. w/ scholarship and intellectual persuits. found today in Iraq.

b. sh'ites- are more fundamental and radical group who follow a succession of Muhammad's relations. Leaders are called IMAMS. followers are inspired to look on Imams as divinely inspired as was Muhammad. Found mostly in Iran.

D. sufism- mystical followers of Islam who are more contemplative and mystical. Form of asceticism with Islam.
The five pillars
1. Belief and witness (SHAHADA) there is no God but god and Muhammad is his messenger.

2. daily prayers (SALAT) must pray five times a day facing Mecca. prescribed ritual and cleansing.

3. fasting (Ramadan) one month of prayer and abstinence.

4. spiritual tithing and almsgiving (Zakat) 2.5% income to poor and needy.

5. pilgrimmage to Mecca (HAIJ). once in a lifetime every good muslim must make a pilgimmage to Mecca to honor the tomb of Abraham and seek the spiritual rewards of such a pilgrimmage.
the Jihad
(Holy war)

1. the greater Jihad-battle against satan and human nature. the struggle to do good and avoid evil.

2. the lesser Jihad. to protect the way of god and battle against the forces of evil.