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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
benign neoplasms
tumors that are well differentiated and do not invade and metastasize
biologic therapy
treatment using biologic agents such interferons, interleukins, monoclonal antibodies, and growth factors to modify the relationship between the host and the tumor by altering the biologic response of the host to the tumor cells
bone marrow transplantation
the transplantation of bone marrow from healthy donors to stimulate production of normal blood cells; provides for the safe use of very high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy to patients whose tumors have developed resistance or failed to respond to standard doses of chemotherapy and radiation
brachytherapy
radiation delivery system that means "close" treatment and consists of the implantation or insertion of radioactive materials directly into the tumor or in close proximity to the tumor
cancer
a group of more than 200 diseases characterized by uncontrolled and unregulated growth of cells
carcinogens
agents capable of producing cellular alterations leading to neoplastic growth
carcinoma in situ
a lesion with all the histologic features of cancer except invasion
carcinomas
malignant tumors that originate from embryonal ectoderm (skin and glands) and endoderm (mucous membrane linings of the respiratory tract, GI tract, and genitourinary [GU] tract)
histologic grading
the evaluation of the appearance of cells and the degree of differentiation
immunologic surveillance
the activity of the immune system that involves checking cell surface antigens and identifying and destroying cells with abnormal or altered antigenic determinants
malignant neoplasms
tumors that range from well differentiated to undifferentiated; can invade and metastasize
metastasis
the spread of the cancer from the initial or primary site to a distant site
nadir
the lowest level of the peripheral blood cell counts (particularly white blood cells [WBC]) that occurs secondary to bone marrow depression
oncogenes
tumor-inducing genes
protooncogenes
normal cellular genes that are important regulators of normal cellular processes
radiation
the emission and distribution of energy through space or a material medium that can be used to cause cellular death
sarcomas
malignant tumors that originate from embryonal mesoderms that become connective tissue, muscle, bone, and fat
staging
the process of classifying the extent and spread of disease
tumor angiogenesis
the process of the formation of blood vessels within the tumor itself
tumor-associated antigens
changes on the cell surface antigens of cancer cells as a result of malignant transformation
vesicants
agents that when accidentally infiltrated into the skin cause severe local tissue breakdown and necrosis