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25 Cards in this Set

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acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
the end stage of chronic HIV infection
acute retroviral syndrome
flu-like syndrome of fever, swollen lymph glands, sore throat, headache, malaise, nausea, muscle and joint pain, diarrhea, and/or a diffuse rash that generally occurs one to three weeks after the initial HIV infection
AIDS-dementia complex
dementia caused by HIV infection of the brain or HIV-related central nervous system problems caused by lymphoma, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes virus, Cryptococcus, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), dehydration, or medication side effects
branched-chain DNA (bDNA) test
a technique used to measure viral load in HIV infection
CD4+ T cells (T helper cells, CD4+ T lymphocytes)
T helper lymphocytes or CD4+ lymphocytes
clades
families of HIV-1, of which at least nine have been identified
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
causative agent of HIV infection
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)
a common type of neoplasm seen in HIV-infected patients that is thought to be caused by the human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) and can affect many organ systems, but lesions are most frequently seen on the skin and oral mucosa
nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
drugs that combine with reverse transcriptase enzyme to block the process needed to convert HIV RNA into HIV DNA
nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
drugs that insert a bit of protein (a nucleoside) into the developing HIV DNA chain, blocking further development of the chain and leaving the production of the new strand of HIV DNA incomplete
nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors
drugs that inhibit the action of reverse transcriptase
occupational exposure
the contraction of an infection (e.g., HIV) through a job-related situation
opportunistic diseases
infections and cancers that occur in immunosuppressed patients that can lead to disability, disease, and death
oral hairy leukoplakia
an Epstein-Barr virus infection that causes painless, white, raised lesions on the lateral aspect of the tongue
Pneumocystis carinii
fungus commonly causing opportunistic pneumonia in those with HIV infection
postexposure prophylaxis
treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy upon exposure to HIV-infected fluids
protease inhibitors
drugs that prevent the protease enzyme from cutting HIV proteins into the proper lengths needed to allow viable virions to assemble and bud out from the cell membrane
protease
a type of enzyme necessary for completion of HIV replication within a cell
retrovirus
RNA viruses that replicate in a "backward" manner (going from RNA to DNA)
reverse transcriptase
enzyme that is present in retroviruses; allows for synthesis of DNA from RNA
seroconversion
development of antibodies following infection
syncytium
a multinucleated nonviable mass that destroys all affected cells
viral load
quantity of viral particles in a biologic sample
viremia
large amounts of virus in the blood, resulting from initial infection with a virus
window period
time period of two months after infection during which an infected individual will not test HIV-antibody positive