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87 Cards in this Set

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acculturation
the process of adopting the cultural traits or social patterns of a different population group.
advanced practice nurse
nurse with a master's degree in nursing, advanced education in pharmacology and physical assessment, and expertise in a specialized area of practice; includes clinical nurse specialist, nurse practitioner, nurse midwife, and nurse anesthetist.
anemia
a manifestation of a pathologic process characterized by a reduction below normal in the number of erythrocytes, quantity of hemoglobin, and/or the volume of packed red cells (hematocrit) in the blood.
anergy
immunodeficient condition characterized by lack of or diminished reaction to an antigen or group of antigens.
antigen
a substance, usually a protein, that the body recognizes as foreign and that can evoke an immune response.
aplastic anemia
a disease with a deficiency of all of the formed elements of blood (specifically red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets), representing a failure of the cell-generating capacity of bone marrow.
assessment
collecting subjective and objective information about a patient; forms the base for the plan of care.
assimilation
the process in which a person or a group of people of a different ethnic background becomes absorbed into a new culture.
autoimmunity
an inappropriate immune reaction to self-proteins; the immune system no longer differentiates self from nonself with respect to these substances.
benign neoplasm
a localized tumor that has a fibrous capsule, limited potential for growth, a regular shape, and cells that are well differentiated; does not invade surrounding tissue or metastasize to distant sites.
biologic therapy
treatment using biologic agents such as interferons, interleukins, monoclonal antibodies, and growth factors to modify the relationship between the host and the tumor by altering the biologic response of the host to the tumor cells.
bone marrow transplant
the transplantation of bone marrow from healthy donors to stimulate production of normal blood cells; provides for the safe use of very high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy to patients whose tumors have developed resistance or failed to respond to standard doses of chemotherapy and radiation.
brachytherapy
radiation delivery system that means "closed" treatment and consists of the implantation or insertion of radioactive materials directly into the tumor or in close proximity to the tumor.
cancer
a group of more than 200 diseases characterized by uncontrolled and unregulated growth of cells.
carcinogens
agents capable of producing cellular alterations leading to the development or increasing the incidence of neoplastic growth.
carcinoma in situ
a lesion with all the histologic features of cancer except invasion.
carcinomas
malignant tumors that originate from embryonal ectoderm (skin and glands) and endoderm (mucous membrane linings of the respiratory tract, GI tract, and genitourinary tract).
cell-mediated immunity
immunity that is initiated through specific antigen recognition by T lymphocytes, macrophages, and natural killer cells.
chemotherapy
the treatment of disease with chemical agents.
clinical (critical) pathway
a description of practices that directs the entire health care team in the daily care goals for select health care problems; may include a nursing care plan, interventions specific for each day of hospitalization, and a documentation tool.
collaborative problems
potential or actual complications of disease or treatment that nurses treat with other health care providers, most frequently physicians.
computerized documentation
the use of computers to document patient care.
concept map
method of recording a nursing care plan using a visual diagram of the patient's problems and interventions.
cultural competence
the complex integration of knowledge, attitudes, and skills that enables the nurse to provide culturally appropriate health care.
cultural imposition
the result when one's own cultural beliefs and practices are imposed on another person or group of people.
culture
a set of learned values, beliefs, customs, and behavior that is shared by a group of interacting individuals.
culture-bound syndrome
illnesses or afflictions that are recognized within a cultural group.
cytokines
soluble factors secreted by white blood cells and a variety of other cells in the body that act as messengers among cells of the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems.
defecation
signs and symptoms, or the clinical cues that, in a cluster, lead to the nursing diagnosis.
determinants of health
factors that influence the health of individuals and groups.
disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
a grave coagulopathy resulting from the overstimulation of clotting and anticlotting processes in response to disease or injury, such as septicemia, acute hypotension, poisonous snakebites, neoplasms, obstetric emergencies, severe trauma, extensive surgery, and hemorrhage.
ethnicity
groups whose members share a common social and cultural heritage.
ethnocentrism
a belief in the inherent superiority of an ethnicity or group to which one belongs.
evaluation
the last phase of the nursing process in which the nurse determines if identified outcomes have been met and the overall accuracy of the assessment, diagnosis, and implementation phases is evaluated.
evidence-based practice
the use of evidence (results from research) to improve quality and outcomes of health care.
folk healers
traditional healers who use nonconventional methods of medicine; typically share a native language and ancestry with the patient.
health care disparities
differences in the quality of health care that are not due to access-related factors or clinical needs, preferences, and appropriateness of the intervention but rather due to stereotyping, biases, and prejudice.
health disparities
differences in measures of health status among different groups of people living in a community, state, or nation.
Healthy People
broad-based program that involves government, private, public, and nonprofit organizations in preventing disease and promoting health.
hemachromatosis
an autosomal recessive disease characterized by increased intestinal iron absorption and, as a result, increased tissue iron deposition.
hematopoietic stem cell transplant
transplantation of bone marrow and peripheral stem cells.
hemolytic anemia
an anemia caused by destruction of red blood cells (RBCs) at a rate that exceeds production.
hemophilia
hereditary bleeding disorders caused by defective or deficient clotting factors; classic hemophilia A is a sex-linked recessive genetic disorder caused by deficient factor VIII; hemophilia B is a deficiency of factor IX.
Hodgkin's lymphoma
a malignant condition characterized by proliferation of abnormal giant, multinucleated cells, called Reed-Sternberg cells, which are located in lymph nodes.
human leukocyte antigens
system that consists of a series of linked genes that occur together on the sixth chromosome in humans and is used to assess tissue compatibility.
humoral immunity
antibody-mediated immunity.
hypersensitivity reaction
an inappropriate and excessive response of the immune system to a sensitizing antigen, called an allergen, resulting in tissue damage.
immunocompetence
the ability of an immune system to mobilize and deploy its antibodies and other responses to inactivate or destroy foreign substances.
immunodeficiency
inadequate protection of the body by the immune system.
immunosuppressive therapy
therapy that inhibits immune function and is prescribed for patients to treat autoimmune disorders and to prevent transplant rejection; also a serious side effect of cytotoxic drugs used in cancer chemotherapy.
implementation
phase of the nursing process involving the activation of the plan with the use of nursing interventions.
iron deficiency anemia
a microcytic hypochromic anemia caused by inadequate supplies of iron needed to synthesize hemoglobin; characterized by pallor, fatigue, and weakness.
leukemia
a broad term given to a group of malignant diseases characterized by diffuse replacement of bone marrow with proliferating leukocyte precursors, affecting the blood and blood-forming tissues of the bone marrow, lymph system, and spleen.
lymphomas
malignant neoplasms originating in the bone marrow and lymphatic structures resulting in the proliferation of lymphocytes.
malignant neoplasm
a tumor that tends to grow, invade, and metastasize; usually has an irregular shape and is composed of poorly differentiated cells; if untreated, it may result in death.
megaloblastic anemias
a group of disorders caused by impaired DNA synthesis and characterized by the presence of large red blood cells.
metastasis
the spread of the cancer from the initial or primary site to a distant site.
monoclonal antibodies
homogeneous populations of identical antibody molecules produced by specialized tissue cell culture lines.
multiple myeloma
a condition in which malignant neoplastic plasma cells infiltrate the bone marrow and destroy bone.
myelodysplastic syndrome
a group of related hematologic disorders characterized by a change in the quantity and quality of bone marrow elements.
nadir
the lowest point, such as the blood count after it has been depressed by chemotherapy.
non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
a heterogeneous group of malignant neoplasms involving lymphoid tissue.
nursing diagnosis
the act of identifying and labeling human responses to actual or potential health problems; also is the label or concise statement that describes a clinical judgment about an individual, family, or community response to actual or potential health problems/life processes.
nursing informatics
nursing specialty integrating nursing science, computer science, and information science in identifying, collecting, processing, and managing information to support nursing practice, administration, education, research, and the expansion of knowledge.
nursing intervention
any act by a nurse that implements the nursing care plan or any specific objective of that plan, such as turning a comatose patient to avoid the development of decubitus ulcers or teaching insulin injection technique to a patient with diabetes before discharge from the hospital.
nursing process
an assertive, problem-solving approach to the identification and treatment of patient problems; serves as an organizational framework for the practice of nursing.
oncogenes
potentially cancer-inducing genes.
pernicious anemia
a progressive megaloblastic macrocytic anemia resulting from inadequate gastric secretion of intrinsic factor necessary for absorption of cobalamin (vitamin B12).
planning
third phase of the nursing process consisting of setting goals and expected outcomes with the patient and family, when feasible, and determining strategies for accomplishing the goals.
protooncogenes
normal cellular genes that are important regulators of normal cellular processes.
race
vague divisions of humankind, more closely related to people who share a common ancestry and physical characteristics such as skin color, bone structure, or blood group.
radiation
the emission and distribution of energy through space or a material medium that can be used to cause cellular death.
sarcoma
a malignant tumor that originates from embryonal mesoderm that becomes connective tissue, muscle, bone, and fat.
sickle cell disease
a group of inherited, autosomal recessive disorders characterized by the presence of an abnormal form of hemoglobin in the erythrocyte.
staging
the process of classifying the extent and spread of disease.
standardized nursing languages
a readily understood common language used among nurses to clearly define and evaluate nursing care and to improve communication.
stereotyping
the viewing of members of a specific culture, race, age, or ethnic group as being alike and sharing the same values and beliefs.
subculture
an ethnic, regional, economic, or social group with characteristic patterns of behavior, background, or ideals that distinguish it from the rest of a culture or society.
targeted therapy
treatment that interferes with cancer growth by targeting specific cellular receptors and pathways that are important in tumor growth.
teletherapy
radiation therapy administered by a machine that is positioned at some distance from the patient; the most common form of radiation therapy treatment.
thalassemia
an autosomal recessive genetic disorder of inadequate production of normal hemoglobin.
transcultural nursing
a specialty that focuses on the comparative study and analysis of cultures and subcultures; the goal is the discovery of culturally relevant facts that can guide the nurse in providing culturally appropriate and competent care.
tumor angiogenesis
the process of the formation of blood vessels within the tumor itself.
tumor suppressor genes
genes that suppress neoplastic growth.
unlicensed assistive personnel
unlicensed individual who is trained to function in an assistive role to the professional nurse.
values
the sets of rules by which individuals, families, groups, and communities live.
vesicants
agents that when accidentally infiltrated into the skin cause severe local tissue breakdown and necrosis.