Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How much CO2 goes to kidneys? What process utilizes it?
25 %

Urine production
How many nephrons are there in an adult <40? What is the rate of loss after 40?
1 mil

~1 %/yr
Ureters function and mechanism?
Conduct urine from renal pelvis to urinary bladder

Peristaltic contractions
What organ is trigone assoc w/ and what is it?

triangular area formed by openings of 2
ureters & urethra
How much urine is required before you have an urge to urinate?
~200 cm3
What is the normal amt of urinations/day?
6-8 times
How much filtrate is formed/minute? How much is excreted in urine?
125 ml (This is the GFR)

1 ml
What common drug class can affect kidney function?
Who is at higher risk for bladder neoplasms?
What 2 ABX increase risk for renal dysfunction?
Vanco and gentomycin
What is entailed in clean catch urine collection? Sterile or nonsterile?
Clean first, urinate a bit, then stop, the collect; non-sterile
What happens to Cr levels in glomelular d/os?
serum Cr increases, urine Cr decreases
What does serum Cr reflect?
Which is more reliable for testing for renal damage: BUN or serum Cr?
serum Cr
What would elevated BUN and nrml Cr indicate?
likely upper GI bleed r/t metabolized HGb
BUN synthesis, elimination, & factors of influence?
Chief end product of protein metabolism



Protein intake, GIB, & hydration status
Purpose for CrCl?
Assesses GFR
What does a radionuclide renal scan assess?
Renal blood flow, nephron & collecting system function, & renal structure
What's used for renal artery stenosis?
Surgical stent
At what level will glucose start to appear in urine?
>180 mg/dl
What is a sitz bath and what is its function?
Application of warm water to perioneal area

Helps bring circulation (vasodilation)
What is the only ix for a renal biopsy?
Idiopathic renal d/o
What is anasarca and what is it r/t?
Generalized edema

Excess fluid
What's the most accurate measure of renal paths?
How much weight is lost when 1 l of urine is excreted?
1 kg
What is azotemia and what is it r/t?
Extremely elevated BUN

Acute glomerulonephritis
Post-infectious GN is assoc w/ what pathogen?
Strep, usually of the skin
Most common form of GN?
Membranous glomerulonephritis
What test should be run after acute GN clears?
ASO test for strep
Chronic GN etiology (3 main)?
epeated episodes of acute glomerular
nephritis, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, hyperlipidemia,
and other causes of glomerular damage
Lab results r/t acute GN?
Fixed specific gravity, casts, proteinuria, lyte imbalances, and hypoalbuminemia
What is Nephrotic syndrome?
Any condition that seriously damages the glomerular
membrane and results in increased permeability to
plasma proteins
What does nephrotic syndrome result in?
hypoalbuminemia & edema
Etiology of nephrotic syndrome?
chronic glomerulonephritis, diabetes
mellitus with intercapillaryglomerulosclerosis,
amyloidosis, lupus erythematosus, multiple myeloma,
and renal vein thrombosis
Why does hypoalbuminemia lead to edema?
It decreases oncotic pressure -> generalized edema -> activation of RAS -> Na+ retention -> edema
What are the pre-renal causes of acute renal failure (ARF)?
Hypovolemia & HTN
What are the intrisic causes of acute renal failure (ARF)?
Autoimmune, infection, post-GN, ABX, & IV contrast
What are the post-renal causes of acute renal failure (ARF)?
BPH (prostate enlargement) & stones
2 most common causes of Chronic Renal Failure?
Most common infection that causes Chronic Renal Failure? What is it?

Inflammation of the renal pelvis
Where would Continuous renal replacement therapies (CCRT) be used?
In an ICU
CKD (staging system for renal failure) is based upon what measure? What stage is ESRD?

5 (GFR = ~15)
HD access are both venous or arterial?
What do you assess in pts with an Internal Arteriovenous Fistula or Graft?
Listen for a bruit (should be present)

Feel for a thrill
Which lyte doesn't dialyze out?
PO4 3-
Peritoneal dialysis is a sterile/non-sterile procedure?
Very sterile
What is used as filtration in peritoneal dialysis?
Blood vessels
What is done to dialysate post-dialysis?
Weighed (should be more)
What must be held on dialysis days?
anti-HTN meds to prevent hypotension
How much diasylate is generally used?
2 L
What should be avoided in dialysis pt in hospital?
Meds with K and Mg
what needs to be mtrd in the dialysis pt?
Dietary Na, K, protein, & fluid
Potential problems with dialysis?
Pericardial d/o



Bone disease
What are all dialysis pts given in terms of meds?

Epo SQ (can be given IV)
When do you give blood to dialysis pts?
During dialysis
What is the only ix for kidney removal?
If there's a malignancy
Post-op concerns for kidney surgery?
hemorrhage, shock, abd distention, paralytic ileus, infection, and thromboembolism
1st sign of kidney transplant rejection?
How long after transplant before kidney starts functioning?
2-3 weeks
What is the second most common reason for seeking health care?
What type of infection is assoc w/ a UTI?
Risk factors for UTI:
Function of glycosaminoglycan(GAG)




Shorter urethra in women
Why do women get more UTIs?
Shorter urethras
Most common uropathogenic bacteria?
E. coli
What is a major gerontologic concern r/t UTIs?
What % of pts with UTIs are asymptomatic?
Why does cranberry juice prevent UTIs?
prevents binding of bacteria to lining of bladder
How much fluid should a pt with a UTI take in/day?
2 L
How do you retrain a bladder in cath pts?
Clamp cath, allow bladder to fill, then remove
What is iatrogenic urinary incontinence?
lost to in-dwelling cath
What is functional urinary incontinence?
Unable to get to bathroom

Caused by dementia
What grp of pts is most at risk for overflow urinary incontinence?
BPH pts
What is urge urinary incontinence?
What is stress urinary incontinence? High risk group? Etiology?
Pressure on bladder

Pregnant women

Increased intrabdominal pressure
What drugs are used for promoting continence?
Detrol (anti-spasmodic)

What kind of stones don't show up on X-rays?
uric stones
What lab finding could indicate a stone?
elevated Ca
What's the highest priority for mgmt of stones?
Pain mgmt
What are the terms for stones?
Urolithiasis and Nephrolithiasis
What are the ix for a urinary diversion?
bladder cancer or other pelvic malignancies,
birth defects, trauma, strictures, neurogenicbladder,
chronic infection or intractable cystitis; used as a last
resort for incontinence
What are the biggest concerns r/t BPH?
retention & UTI
Tx for BPH?
Flomax (a-blocker), avodart (5-H reductase inhibitor; shrinks prostate), TURP (surgical[requires CBI {continual bladder irrigation w/ sterile H20}])