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47 Cards in this Set

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Part of GI sys that secretes regulatory hormones for secretory juices?
Small intestine
What is CEA indicative of?
colon cancer
What do you look for in stool tests?
WBCs & parasites
What does free air in abdomen indicate?
Emergency
When is abd ultrasound often used?
In surgery
When are CTs used for GI dx?
appendicitis, obstructions, tumors, and hernias
Properties of oral cancer:
Usually lips & tongue

Mostly squamous cell cancers
Tx of oral cancer:
surgical resection and/or radiation therapy
Property of malignant oral tumors?
usually not inflammed
What is odynophagia? Causes? Tests?
Pain w/ swallowing

Benign and malignant strictures

Barium swallow, EGD, & mano
What does manometry measure and how is it done?
Tests pressures in esophogus via EGD
Esophageal varices are:
Dilated, tortuous, superficial veins caused by a back-up of venous flow
Esophageal varices are usually secondary to:
cirrhosis or congential defect
What pt pop often dies of Esophageal varices?
CHF
Esophageal varices tx?
Vasoconstrictors, b-blockers, and, if nec., endoscopic banding or vascular shunting
Esophageal varices complication?
Very high rupture rate
What type of Hiatal hernia is malignant and why?
Paraesophageal

Because stomach can incarcerate -> ischemia
Paraesophageal hernia etiology:
Trauma or progressive
Paraesophageal hernia: asymptomatic?
no
Barrett's Esophagitis etiology and complications?
tissue injury due to chronic exposure to gastric juices often r/t untreated GERD

Can lead to adeno- or squamous cell cancer
Suction/Irrigation NGT ix:
GI bleed, med admin, obstruction, & post-op
How to determine length of NGT to insert?
Measure from middle of stomach to mouth to ear
NGT feedings are delivered where?
stomach, distal duodenum or proximal jejunum; confirmed by x-ray
What causes dumping syndrome r/t NGT feeding?
High osmolality
What should be done to PEGs between feedings?
Clamped
Ix for Parenteral Nutrition:
GI obstruction, GI surgery, burns, & medical conditions (pancreatitis)
Nursing mgmt for PUD (ulcers):
Mntr and mgmt of complications (hemorrhage, perforation, and pyloric obstruction)
Where do perforation r/t PUD occur most often?
Duodenum
Gastric cancers are most prominent in:
The elderly and Latinos, AA, and Asians
What two types of food increase risk of gastric cancer sig?
fried food and smoked foods (r/t nitrates)
Ix for gastrectomy
intractable ulcers, neoplasms, and obstructions
What to mtr for post-op gastrectomy?
Bile reflux, anorexia, pernicious anemia, & dumping syndrome
Which hernias are pathological?
Incarcerated/strangulated: not reducible, bowel obstruction
What are skip lesions assoc w/?
Crohn's
What are common w/ Crohn's?
Abscesss, fistuals, and stricures (most often terminal ileum)
What is the only surgical tx for ulcerative colitis?
Colectomy
Diverticulitis symptoms:
LLQ pain, fever, focal tenderness (most common in sigmoid), elevated WBC, N/V/D
Most colon cancers are distal/proximal
distal
What's another name for gallstones, what are the two types, and which is most common?
Cholelithiasis; cholesterol & pigmented (w/ cirrhosis); cholesterol
Symptoms of biliary colic:
RUQ pain radiating to back (esp. post-prandial)
RUQ pain is usually:
hepatic or gallblader
RLL pain is usually:
appendix, GYN, IBD
LUQ pain is usually:
pancreas, stomach, spleen (ulcers, gastritis)
LLL pain is usually:
IBD
Suprapubic pain is usually:
GYN or bladder (cystitis)
Flank pain:
renal
All over pain:
peritonitis