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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Differentiate between the Types of Immunity and Give an Example of each: Passive Artificial, Passive Natural, Active Artificial , and Active Natural (P.990)
- Passive – Not Produced by Individual but Obtained from Another Source
Passive Artificial – Injection of Preformed Antibodies
Passive Natural – Placental Trasmission or Breast Milk (Mother to Baby)

- Active – Individual Produces His/Her Own Antibodies
Active Artificial – From Vaccine that Stimulates Production of Antibodies
Active Natural – Person Has Disease Gets Memory Cells for that Pathogen
List the Organs and Cells Involved in the Immune System? (P.987)
- Lymphoid Organs
Type(s) of WBC will Most Likely be Increased in Patients with Allergic Conditions? (P.994)
- Eosinophils, Basophils
The Term Used to Describe the Point when Antibodies to HIV are High Enough to Produce Positive ELISA Results? (P.1015)
- ELISA Test is Performed Twice (For Accuracy)
- Western Blot Test is Performed to Test for Four Major HIV Antigens
- If Both Tests are Positive, Patient is HIV-Antibody Positive
- Seroconversion
Pathophysiology, Signs and Symptoms and Management of Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction. What is the Best Way to Minimize the Chance of Such Reaction? (P.1001-1002)
- Lower Back or Chest Pain, Hypotension, Fever, Chills, Tachycardia
- Direct Coomb’s Test; Agglutination Test with Pt.s RBC and Antihuman
- Prevent Antibodies from Forming
Common Triggers for Allergic Rhinitis? (P.998-)
- Allergens such as Dust, Pet Dander, Dust Mites
Indications for Adults to Receive Passive Immunity? (P.990)
- Injection of Preformed Antibodies
- May Help Prevent Disease After Exposure to Pathogen Such as Hepatitis
- Immuno-Compromised Elderly
Most Effective Method to Control HIV Infection? (P.1015)
- Antiretroviral Drugs that Inhibit Reproduction of Virus
- Prevent Viruses from Attaching to CD4+ Receptors of T4 Lymphocyte
- Prophylactic Treatment for Opportunistic Infections Such As:
- Hepatitis, Herpes, Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia
Immune Cell Monitored to Determine the Progression of AIDS? (P.1015)
- CD4/CD8 T-Lymphocyte Count
Differentiate Between Angioedema and Urticaria? (P.1001)
Urticaria (Hives):
- Type I Hypersensitive Reaction
- Effects the Skin
- Form of Urticaria; Deeper More Widespread
- Effects Submucosal & Subcutaneous Tissue
Priority Nursing Intervention of Patient Experiencing Angioedema? (P.999)
- Eliminate Offending Environmental Stimuli
- Antihistamines and Nasal Decongestants for Symptomatic Relief
- Corticosteroids via Inhalation or Nasal Spray Maybe Administered
Medical Management to Decrease Risk of Transplant Rejection? (P.1003)
- Immunosuppression Therapy – Major Risk for Severe Infection
Most Common Type of Tissue Transplant?
- Corneal Transplant
Tender Lymph Nodes are Most Likely to Indicate what Condition? (P.993)
- Bacterial or Viral Infection (Inflammation)
Manifestations of an Allergic Reaction to Wasp Sting? (P.993)
- Anaphylactic Shock
- Epinephrine Pen May be Vital Because Medical Treatment May Not be Near
Which Immunoglobulin Cannot be Replaced Exogenously? (P.1007)
- Ig-A which Increases Risk of Pulmonary Infections
What Type of Anemia Condition will Result if the Stomach is Surgically Removed? What is the Treatment for this Condition? (P.1004)
- Pernicious Anemia; Lack of B12 Absorption
- Intramuscular Injections of Vitamin B12
Name of Test which Actually Tests for the HIV Virus Itself? (P.1015)
- Viral Load Testing – Test for HIV RNA in Plasma
Etiology and S/S of Lipodystrophy in HIV Patients? (P.1014)
- Decreased Appetite, Oral Lesions, Altered Metabolism
- Malabsorption, GI Infections, Diarrhea
Define Autoimmune Disease? (P.1004)
- Immune System Mistakenly Reacts to Part of the Body Itself
- Caused by Viral Infections, Drugs, and Cross-Reactive Antibodies
- Hormones have also Been Foundto Influence this Breakdown
Drug of Choice for Treating PCP? (P.1014)
- Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (Septra) is Given Prophylactically
- Caused by a Fungus
Describe Proper Condom Use to Decrease HIV Transmission? (P.1013)
- New for Each Intercourse Act (Eeeewwww, What Else??)
- Latex or Polyurethane Only
- Nondamaged, Unexpired
- Use Only Water Soluable Lubricants
- Replace if Broken
- Withdraw by Holding Against Base of Erect Penis
Patho, Signs and Symptoms as Disease Progresses? (P.1014)
- SOB, Fever, Wt. Loss, Fatigue, Night Sweats, Persistent Diarrhea
Unexplained Weight Loss of 10 % of Body Weight Associated with Chronic Diarrhea in HIV Patients? (P.1014)
- AIDS Wasting Syndrome
Signs and Symptoms of Pernicious Anemia? (P.1004)
- Increasing Weakness, Loss of Appetite, Glossitis, and Pallor
- Peripheral Neuropathy
Confirmation Lab Test for HIV? (P.995)
- Western Blot; Done After Two Positive ELISA
Drug of Choice for Patient Having a Severe Allergic Reaction?
- Epinephrine
Nursing Actions Appropriate for Patient with Idiopathic Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia? (From Linda)
- Frequent Rest Periods
- Immunosupression Meds; Blood Products as Ordered
Number One Opportunistic Neoplasm Seen in AIDS Patients? (P.1015)
- Kaposi Sarcoma
- Painless, Small Purple-Blue Lesions on Skin
- Treatment Includes Bleomycin, Cryotherapy, or Radiation
Medical Treatment for Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis? (P.1005)
- Lifelong Thyroid Hormone Replacement Therapy
- Thyroxine is Primary Means of Treatment
Common Routes of Transmission of HIV Virus? (P.1012)
- Sexual – Anal, Vaginal, Oral Contact with Mucous Membrane
- Parenteral – Injection by Contaminated Needles
- Perinatal – Mother to Fetus During Pregnancy
Nursing Interventions for a Client with Severe Ankylosing Spondylitis? (P.1006)
- Inflammation of Sacroiliac, Costoverterbal, & Large Peripheral Joints
- Proper Posture and ROM Exercises Taught
- Not to Stay In One Position For Extended Length of Time
Common Etiology of Serum Sickness? (From Linda)
- Sulfonamide or Penicillin Administration
- Severe Uticaria, Andioedema, Fever, Malaise, Muscle Soreness
Side Effects of Corticosteroids? (From Linda)
- Adrenal Atrophy, Cushing’s Syndrome, Osteoporosis
- Increased Risk of Infections, Delayed Wound Healing, Peptic Ulcers
Foods/Beverages that Should be Avoided to Reduce Risk of Infection in HIV Patients? (P.1022)
- Low-Residue Diet, No Dairy Products, Spicy Foods, Caffeine, or Alcohol
Purpose of Immunotherapy Following Allergy Skin Testing? (P.999)
- Allergy Shots of Patients with Severe or Debilitating Symptoms
- Involves Weekly Subcutaneous Injections of Tiny Amounts of Offending Antigen
- Amount of Antigen is Increased Until Patient No Longer Exhibits Symptoms
Complication of Allergic Rhinitis? (P.999)
- Typically Minor and Self Limiting
- Infection of Sinuses(Sinusitis), Nasal Polyps, Asthma, or Chronic Bronchitis
Teaching Tips to Avoid Triggers for Clients with Airborne Allergies? (P.999)
- Education, Avoid Allergens
- Mask when Mowing Lawn
- Heating Ducts Cleaned with New Filters
- Frequent Home Vaccuming and Dusting
Describe Standard Precautions? (P.1013, 84)
- Use Precautions for All Patients to Protect Self and Others
- Assume All Patients are Infected Regardless of Diagnosis
- Use Gloves, Masks, Goggles, Face Shield, and Hand Washing
- HIV Positive Workers with Open Lesions Should Avoid Direct Patient Care
Most Common Opportunistic Infection Associated with HIV Disease? (P.1014)
Candida Albicas
– Normal Fungus Found in GI Tract
- Causes Mouth or Esophogeal Pain, and Dysphagia

- Causes Vision Impairment

Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia
- Caused by Fungus Produces Shortness of Breath, Fever, and Non-Productive Cough
- Treated with Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (Septra)
Signs/Symptoms of Anaphylaxis and Emergency Treatment? (P.1000)
- Generalized Smooth Muscle Spasms
- Causes Bronchial Narrowing, Stridor, Wheezing, and Laryngeal Edema
- Too Many Read the Book

- IV Access with Epinephrine and Vasopressor (Dopamine); Increase BP
- Oxygen Therapy, Tracheostomy, Endotracheal Intubation
Measures to Reduce Risk of Latex Allergies? (P.1003)
- Using Latex Free Equipment
- Oral or Topical Antihistamines
- Topical Corticosteroids
Describe what can Occur (S/S) with Type 1 Latex Allergy and Type 4 Latex Allergy? (P.1003)
- Type I (Anaphylactic Reaction): Sneezing, Nasal Itching, Rhinorrhea
- Type IV (Delayed Reaction): Reddened, Pruritic, and Fragile Vesicles