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214 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
An employer who fails to provide sufficient PPE for empoyees may be fined by?
OSHA
Which of the following is NOT a responsibility of the medial assistant in the clinical laboratory?
Interpretting abnormal results and providing patients with diagnoses
Which of the following in NOT a responsibility of the medical assistant in the clinical laboratory?
Interpretting abnormal results and providing patients with diagnoses
Blank is the study of bacteria, fungi, yeast, parasites, and viruses
Microbiology
The act passed by Congress to establish quality standards for all laboratory testing is referred to as?
CLIA
Laboratory tests preformed in a physician's office are most likely to be categorized as?
moderate complexity and waived
NOT a waived test?
Gram staining
The lab department that perfoms blood cell counts?
Hematology
You are preparing a chemical hygiene plan for your employer and need copies of the material safety data sheets ( MSDS) for several products in use in your laboratory. The first step is to contact?
the maufacturer of the product
Which of the following is the most efficient method of preventing a healthcare acquired infection (HAI)
Washing your hands
The pledge of healthcare prfessionals to work to achieve the highest degree of excellence in the care given to every patient is otherwise known as?
quality assurance
You are required to measure urine from a 24-hour specimen. You?
use a graduated cylinder to measure the urine.
How much diluent is added to a 2-mL sample to make a 1:10 dilution?
18mL (1/10 X ?/2mL = 20mL - 2 = 18)
The ocular of the microscope generally magnifies the image
10 times
Laboratory personnel that have had 4 years of college and are able to pperform specialied lab test are:
medical laboratory scientist (MLS)
When the 40' objective is in place on the microscope, the total magnification of the specimen?
400'
Immersion oil can be used with which of the following objective lenses of the microscope?
100'
A centrifuge is used to separate?
crystals and cells froom urine, soilds from liquids, blood cells from serum or plasma
Balancing a centrifuge requires that all tubes in the load:
have an equal amount of liquid of the same voscosity, have a partner directly across in the rotor holder, are of qual size and shape
The microscopic study of cells such as PAP smears are performed in which department:
cytology
Which of the following is a qualitative laboratory test result?
Fecal occult blood test: postive
The clinical chemistry department performs which of the following tests?
lipid profile
An MSDS contains which of the following?
hazardous ingredients, Trade and chemical names, manufacturer's name and address
All of the following are considered biologic hazards?
bacteria, fungi, viruses
Which of the following Vacutainer tubes is routinely used for hematology testing?
Lavender topped
No anticoagulants are found in which of the following tubes?
red topped
Blank is an anticoagulant that prevents platelets from clumping and preserves the appearance of blood cells for microscopic preparation.
Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)
The slant at the open end of a needle used for venipuncture is called the:
bevel
the needle size most commonly used for adult venipuncture is what gauge?
21 gauge
The needle size most commonly used in infants and the elderly is what?
23 gauge
A tourniquet is used during the phlebotomy procedure to:
prevent venous flow out of the site, cause the vein to bulge
Without a clot activator, whole blood typically clots in minutes??
60 to 90
Thixotropic gel, found in the SST red-gray marbled- topped vacutainer tube is
less dense than red blood cells but more sense than serum
the laboratory requisition indicates that you are to collect a venous blood specimen for meatology thest, serum chemistry testing, and coagulation studies. What is the proper order of collection for these tubes
Ligh blue, red, lavender
You are required to collect a venous sample for a typical hematology test, the complete blood count.
a lavender-topped tube
leaving a tourniquet tied on a patient's arm for longer tha the recommended time results in?
hemoconcentration
In a routine venipuncture, the angle at which the meedle enters the arm should be what degrees?
15 - 30 degrees
Durning a routine venipuncture, when should the phlebotomist request that the patient "make a fist"?
after applying the tourniquet and before inserting the needle.
A needle-stick is more likely to occur if:
an attempt is made to recap a needle
the most common phlebotomy site in adults is/are the
veins in the antercubital space
The proper procedure for collecting a serum specimen is to
allow the specimen to clot, and use a red or gold tube
the light yellow part of whole blood that contains fibrinogen is:
plasma
which is the proper technique for performing a venipuncture?
the needle bevel is face up, and the needle is inserted at a 15-degree angle.
the color of the tube top for collection of a coagulation test is?
light blue
Specimens for test substances that exhibit diurnal variation must be collected:
at specific times
The best way to prevent fainting in a patient during blood collection is to:
have the patient lie down during the phlebotomy
Patients are most likely to be in a basal state at what time?
6 AM
A speccimen collected from a patient who has recently eaten may appear:
lipemic
Blood tests that are affected b the patient's posture are those that measure:
large molecules
Collection of blood from a vigorously crying child may cause a falsely:
increased white blood cell count
A patient who appears pale and has cold, damp skin may develop:
syncope
Physician approval is required when collecting blood from:
foot veins
areas that should be avoided for venipuncture include following:
hematomas, sclerosed veins, tattoos
When encountering a patient with a fistula, the blood collector should
use the other arm
If a suitable vein is most located in the left arm, the blood collector should
check the right arm
Incorrect collection of blood from a patient who has had a mastectomy can result in all of the following:
patient developing lymphedema, patient develpoing an infection, samples being affected by lymphostasis
Collectiom of specimens from foot veins is not recommended in all of the following
diabetic patients, patients with coagulation disorders,cardiac patients
When collectiong blood from a patient with very edematous right arm and a large hematoma in the antercubital area of the left arm, the blood collector should collect the speciment from?
below the hematoma
Attemping to draw blood from a vein that is occluded may result in?
failure to obtain sufficient blood
Collection of blood from an area that is edematous:
should be avoided
if a patient begins to faint during the venipuncture, the blood collector should immediately:
remove the tourniquet and needle
A tourniquet is not applied when collection a specimen for:
lactic acid
Difficult-to-locate veins can be made more prominet by all of the following:
massaging the arm, applying warm compresses, having the patient clench the fist
Prolonged tourniquet application will cause
hemolysis, and hemoconcentration
The puncture site may require additional pressure to stop bleeding when the patient
is taking anticoagulants, and frequently takes aspirin
Specimens are rejected by the laboratory for all of the following reason:
clots in a lavender stopper tube, collection in the wrong tube, incompletely filled light-blue stopper tubes.
Aer filling the first tube of a three-tube collection, blood does not flow into the second tube, The phlebotomist should:
move the needle slightly,and try a new second tube.
Using a 20-gauge needle and a 10-mL evacuated tube on a small vwin may cause:
a collapsed vein
You receive a requisition for the following tubes:light blue, lavender, yellow, and red. What order should the tubes be drawn?
yellow, light blue, red and lavender
While performing a venipuncture, the phlebotomist notices bright red blood spurting into the tube, the phlebotomist should?
apply pressure for 10 minutes after withdrawing the needle
Which of the following patient conditions will prolong the time it takes to stop the bleeding from a venipuncture site?
patient taking Coumadin
All of the following specimens would be rejected:
unlabled specimen, half full light-blue stopper tube, and specimen without a requisition form
To transfer blood from a syringe to an evacuated tube:
use a transfer device
When using a syringe:
the plunger should be pulled back slowly
allowing blood to leak from a vein into the surrounding tissue will cause:
hematoma
failure to remove the toourniquet before removing the needle.
may produce a hematoma
Hematomas can be caused by all of the following:
having the patient bend the elbow, inserting the needle partially into the vein, removing the tourniquet after removing the needle.
A tourniquet is placed on the patient's arm, the vein is located, and the needle is inserted into the arm. No blood flows into the tube, but a dark bulge begins to appear, at the puncture site.the describes??
hematoma
Older patients are more prone to hematoma formation because?
their veins have decreased elasticity
If the plunger of a syringe is pulled back too fast:
the specimen may be hemolyzed
Using a small-gauge needle with a large evacuated tube can cause:
hemolysis
Serum appearing red suggest, that:
potassium values will be falsely elevated
All of the following can cause hemolyzed specimens
gentle inversion of tubes containing blood.
Applying a tourniquet to or drawing blood from an arm located on the same side of the body as a recent mastectomy can be harmful to the patient and may produce erroneous test results. The application of a tourniqquet as part of suck blood collctions is discouraged for all the following reasons:
interferes with the flow of lymph fluid in the area,causes increase in the bood level of lymphocytes and waste products in the areas, and increase the danger of developing lymphedema in the affected area.
proteinuria
protein in the urine
Specific gravity
measures the ability of the kidneys to concentrate the urine
pH
expresses degree of acidity of alkalinity
ketone
end product of fat metabolism
glucose
could indicate presence of diabetes
HCG
pregnancy testing is based on the presence of this hormone
WBC's
may be present in large amounts in a UTI
urochrome
responsible for normal urine color
anuria
absense of urine
dysuria
painful urination
hematuria
blood in the urine
polyuria
excessive urination
nitrite
positive indicates nitrate-reducing bacteria in the urine
bilirubin
positive in liver disease
oliguria
scanty urine output
The presence of an increased amount of protein in urine is often the first indicator of
kidney disease
A 24-hour urine specimen is scheduled to begin upon awakeing in the morning, the patient is unstructed to
empty the blasser into the toilet, note the time of voiding, and collect every specimen for the next 24 hours
All of the following are true regarding reagent strips:
they are thin disposable plastic strips that contain small pads impregnated with chemicals, the pads on the strip contain reagents on each urinary component,the reagents on each pad produce a color change when it reacts with its specific analyte
The tested used to recheck a positive bilirubin test is
ictotest
Glucosuria may be an indicator of which of the following diseases:
diabetes
The presence of intact red blood cells in urine is:
hematuria
The sugar most commonly found in urine is
Glucose
The clinitest is a test used in the laboratory to detect:
Glucosuria
acetest is used to confirm:
Ketonuria
normal urine appears:
clear and yellow
The presence of blood and/or WBC's in freshly voided urine could:
UTI
A one-year child had a positive urine clinitest and a negative dipstick. Which of the following reducing substances (sugar) cannot be the cause of the positive results?
glucose
Yellow foam that is present when urine is mixed is indicative of what in the urine
bilirubin
Before adding the develper to the hemoccult testing pad, the specimen must be allowed to soak into the card for:
3 to 5 minutes
the sample to use for a pregnancy test is a?
first morning sample
A fresh urine specimen which is not refrigerated should be examined within
1 hour
The normal specific graviy of urine is usually between
1.003 to 1.030
first morning specimen
most concentrated specimen
random specimen
collected at any time durning the day
midsteam clean-catch specimen
used for cultures
hemoccult
detects hidden blood in feces
24-hour specimen
collected over a specific period of time for quantitive testing
hematuria
renal calculi, strenuous exercise, glomerulonephritis
hemoglobinuria
intravascular hemolysis
myoglobinuria
rapid muscle degeneration, electric shock
A patient who is not allowed to have food or water for a specified time is clasified as:
NPO
The timing for a glucose tolerance test (GTT) begins
when the patient finishes drinking the glucose
Blood cultures are performed to detect the presence of:
speticemia
The MOST important consideration when collecting a blood culture is:
aseptic technique
When blood is inoculated into blood culture bottles using abutter fly apparatus, the
minimizing the number of sticks
When blood is ioculated into blood culture bottles using a butterfly apparatus the:
aerobic bottle is inoculated first
Specimens that require chilling immediately after collection are placed in a:
container of ice and water
Which of the following tests must be placed on ice immediately after collection
Lactic acid
Chain of custody refers to the:
documentation of specimen handling for legal specimens.
Specimens for cold agglutinins must be:
kept warm
Tests that are most critically affected when a patient is not fasting at the time of collection include:
glucose, cholesterol, triglucerides, or lipid profiles
Blood collected by dermal puncture mmmost closely resembles:
arterial blood
The major vascular areas of the skin is located in the:
dermal-subcutaneous juncture
Warming the site of a dermal puncture will:
increase the flow of arterial blood to the site
Alternating between venipuncture and dermal puncture collection techniques is not recommended when comparing test results for:
glucose
The depth of a dermal puncture must be controlled to:
prevent contact with bone
The maximum safe length of lancets used for heel puncture is
2.0mm
Using a lancet that produces a puncture deeper that recommended may cause
osteomyelitis
The calcaneus is located at the
posterior of the heel
Which of the following pairings is correct
thumb and calluses, index finger and increased nerve endings, fifth finger and decreased tissue mass
Capillary punctures on newborns are performed on the?
plantar area of the heel
To obtain the best flow of blood from a dwermal puncture, the blood collector should?
alternately apply and release pressure to the site.
When warming a dermal puncture site, the temperature should not exceed
42 degrees C
Following a sermal puncture, the blood collector should first
wipe away the first drop of blood
The possibility of infection is increased when?
a puncture is made through a previous site.
To produce a rounded drop of blodd, finger punctures should be made
across the fingerprints
Durning dermal puncture, the firs drop of blood is wiped away because it may be?
diluted with tissue fluid
a blood collector is recollecting a sermal puncture specimen because of hemplysis. the patient complains about a stinging sensation from the first punncture. the most probable cause of the hemplysis in the first specimen is?
not allowing alcohol to dry.
The order of draw for a bilirubin, blood smear, and colplete blood count (CBC) by dermal puncture is
blood smear, CBC and bilirubin
Excessive squeezing of a dermal puncture site can cause all of the following
tissue fluid contamination, hemolysis, bruising of the area
Amber colored Microtainer tubed are used to collect specimens for?
bilirubin
A physician questions the low bilirubin result on a jaundiced baby. The discrepancy may be due to?
exposing the specimen to the bili light
New borns who appear jaundiced
have increased bilirubin levels
the acceptable amound of blood used to fill a filter paper circle for new born screening tests is?
one drop
Erythrocytes have a typical blank shape because of blank
concave; their lack of a nucleus
Granular leukocytes?
act as phagocytes
Which of the following is a normal adult WBC count
10,000 cells/mm3
Platelets do not:
assist in the delivery of oxygen to tissues, are not eleveated in throbocytopenia, are not fragments of a larger cell called a poikilocyte
In performance of a microhematocrit
the open end of the capillary tube should be sealed with clay before centrifuging
The buffy coat
is white and consists of WBCs and platelets.
The decreased hematocrite value could be the result of?
hemorrhage and anemia
The tests included in a CBC are?
WBC, RBC, indices
While Mr. Chakrabarti's hematocrit sample is spinning the centrifuge, you perform and automated hemoglobin test on a sample of his blood and record the value as 15 g/dL. You do a quick mental calculation and expect that the hematocrit value will be approximately?
15 X 3 = 45 or 45%
Which of the following is a normal H&H for a female?
36% and 14 g/dL
Increases in the RBC count are found in which of the following?
Dehydration
all true statements when performing a the coagucheck XS protime meter
The code chipe must match the code number on the test strip vial, failure to completely dry the finger will cause inaccurate results, and patients results are recorded on the patient chart and the log sheet.
A properly prepared wedge smear
has blood cover two thirds to three quarters of the slide
a hematocrit reading of 37 indicates what?
RBC's 37% of the total blood volume
Which is true about leukocytes?
Leukocytes are the largest circulationg blood cells, granulocytes have segmented nuclei,neutrophils are the most numerous WBCs in circulation, Bacterial infections stimulae increased production of neutrophils.
Which of the following is an abnormal value for a differntial?
50% to 70% basophils
The ESR test results
used as general indicator of inflammation
The protime is
also known as the prothrobin time, preformed to evaluate warfarin therapy, and preformed on a specimen collected in a light blue-topped vacutainer tube.
an elevation in the number of lymphocytes could indicate
viral infection
a person with type O blood has
agglutination of both the anti A and anti B antisera in the blood-typing test
All of the following will cause an increased ESR
acute infection, pregnancy and reheumatiod arthritis
B lymphocyte
acts in humoral immunity
Monocyte
part of the reticuloendothelial system in clearing debris and old cells becomes a macrophage.
T- lymphocyte
acts in cellular immunity
basophil
granules contain histamine and heparin
platelets
seals small injries to the vascular endothelium
What type of specimen is required for most chemistry test?
serum
The most common tube used for the collection of specimens for chemistry is
SST
absaining from food or fluids for a specified amount of time is
fasting
Dr. Lim orders a CPK draw on Mr. Roberts. What do eleveted CPK levels indicate?
possible MI
Another name for a fat is a?
lipid
Cholesterol
is a lioprotein, comes from animal fats, is a major cause of atherosclerosis
This type of lipoprotein picks up cholesterol from fats and delivers it to tell cell.
LDL
This type of lipoprotein collects excess cholesterol from the cells and carries it to liver.
HDL
Which is the 'good cholesterol'
HDL
according to national guidelines, a total cholesterol level should be no higher than?
200 mg/dL
Which tests might a physician order for a cardiac risk profile?
total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL
A chemistry profiles is:
an automated method of performing different blood chemistries
This test is commonly used to evaluate kidney function
blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
Which of the following tests would be delivered too the chemistry section
bilirubin
What is the test that compares the amount of glucose in the blood over a 3 hour collection time
glucose tolerance test
TSH levels are assessed to determine the function of what organ?
thyroid
Blood sugar testing can help diagnose
diabetes mellitus
A TC/HDL ratio of 9.2 would indicate
hight risk of coronary heart disease
A glucose level of 50 mg/dL would indicate
hypoglycemia
Sodium, potassium, chloride, and HCO3 are
electrolytes
Electrolytes
evaluate body fluid balance
FBS
fasting blood sugar
Glucola
concentrated glucose solution
Cholesterol
white, waxy, fatlike substance
Alanine aminotransferase
elevated in liver disease
Amylase
elevated in pancreatitis
T3, T4, T7
thyroid panel
alkaline phosphatase
elevated in bone disorders
calcium
mineral associated with endocrine disrders
Hgb A1c
evaluates average blood sugar over time