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155 Cards in this Set

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Definition: Aggregation of nerve cells
Ganglion
Definition: A neuron that originates in the CNS and terminates at the ganglion
Preganglionic
Definition: Neuron from the ganglion to the effector organ
postganglion neuron
What are the two componets of the nervous system?
CNS and PNS
The ________ and ________ make up the CNS
brain and spinal cord
The PNS is made up of the __________ and __________
Efferent (motor) and afferent (sensory)
The afferent (sensory) system goes from ______ to ______
PNS to CNS(senses)
The efferent (motor) system goes from ______ to ______
CNS to PNS
What are the two components of the afferent system?
somatic sensory and visceral sensory
What are the two components of the efferent system?
somatic motor and visceral motor
What are the two divisions of the ANS?
SNS and PSNS
The SNS is responsible for what response?
fight or flight
The PSNS is responsible for what response?
Rest and Digest
The somatic is composed of mostly ____________.
skeletal muscle
The visceral is composed of mostly __________
organs (lungs, heart)
The visceral motor is also known as what nervous system?
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
T/F: The PSNS and SNS have opposing effects
True
Identify the division as either PSNS or SNS:

Outflow from thoracolumber region of spinal cord
Sympathetic
Identify the division as either PSNS or SNS:

Preganglionic neurons are short; postganglionic neurons are long
Sympathetic
Identify the division as either PSNS or SNS:

Adrenal gland directly innervated
Sympathetic
Identify the division as either PSNS or SNS:

Outflow from cranio-sacral region of the spinal cord
parasympathetic
Identify the division as either PSNS or SNS:

Preganglionic neurons are long; postganglionic neurons are short
parasympathetic
Identify the division as either PSNS or SNS:

Adrenal medulla, kidney, pilomotor muscle and sweat gland not innervated by neurons
parasympathetic
The SNS flows from what region of the spinal cord?
Thoraco-lumber
In the SNS the preganglionic neurons are ________ and the postganglionic neurons are _____

(long or short)
short;long
The PSNS flows from what region of the spinal cord?
cranio-sacral
In the PSNS the preganglionic neurons are _____ and the postganglionic neurons are ________.

(long or short)
long; short
Definition: Intertwining of preganglionic neurons
Plexus
List two of the four components that are not innervated by parasympathetic neurons.
-Adrenal medulla
-Kidney
-Pilomotor muscle
-Sweat gland
Draw the structure of GABA
*see notes*
GABA
Gamma amino butyric acid
Definition: Endogenous chemical entities that facilitate the transmission of electrical (nerve) impulses
Neurotransmitters
Most neurons are _________ and _______
discreet entities; local
T/F: In general, neurotransmitters are synthesized, stored, released and inactivated locally and the effects are local.
FALSE

NTs are synthesized, stored, released and inactivated LOCALLY but the effects are FAR-REACHING
Are the effects of NT local or far-reaching?
Far-reaching
Apprx. how many types of NTs are known?
~30
Give an example of a monoamine
-epinephrine
-norepinephrine
-serotonin
Give an example of a peptide (chain of aa linked through peptide bonds)
-substance p
-enkephaline
-endorphines
What are some types (categories) of NTs?
-Acetylcholine
-Monoamines
-Amino Acids
-Peptides
What happens after a nerve impulse reaches the synaptic cleft? (outline the process)
The nerve impulse reaches the synaptic cleft and releases a NT that binds to a receptor on the post synaptic neuron causing a change in membrane potential
When a receptor is also an ion channel it is known as the ___________ effect.
Ionotropic effect
When a receptor produces a second messenger (ex: cAMP) it is known as the __________ effect.
Metabotropic effect
Neurons that release ACh are termed ___________ neurons.
Cholinergic
Cholinergic neurons release __________.
Acetylcholine (ACh)
Draw the structure for Acetylcholine
*see notes*
ACh is the neurotransmittor of all _____ganglionic fibers of the SNS and PSNS
preganglionic fibers
ACh is the neurotransmittor of all postganglionic fibers of the ___________ division.
parasympathetic division
ACh is the neurotransmittor of all preganglionic and all postganglionic fibers of the ____________ division
parasympathetic
ACh is the neurotransmittor of all preganglionic and few postganglionic fibers of the ____________ division
sympathetic
ACh is the neurotransmittor of what nervous system?
Somatic nervous system
ACh is the neurotransmittor of some neurons of the __________ nervous system.
SOME NEURONS OF THE central nervous system

(vs. entire somatic nervous system)
Where is ACh released?
at the adrenal medulla
What is the role of ACh in the CNS?
cognition, memory, behaviour, coordination of movement
What is the role of ACh in the eyes?
constriction of pupil (miosis)

*accommodates for near vision*
What is the role of ACh in the lungs and bronchioles?
-inc. constriction of bronchioles
-inc. secretion from the tracheobronchial mucosa
What is the role of ACh in the stomach?
increased contraction and secretion
What is the role of ACh in the intestine?
increased motility
What is the role of ACh in the bladder?
contraction (micturition)

**ACh causes the contraction of detrussor muscles of the bladder and causes the relaxation of the sphincter and trigon muscles of bladder (top-constricted; bottom-relaxed)
What is the role of ACh in the heart?
-dec. rate of contraction (negative chronotropic effect)
-dec. force of contraction (negative ionotropic effect)
What is the role of ACh in the blood vessels?
relaxation of smooth muscles of blod vessels (vasodilation)
What is the role of ACh in the exocrine glands?
inc. secretions of salivary, sweat and lacrymal glands
Where do endocrine glands secrete?
Secrete into a duct
Where do endocrine glands secrete?
directly into the blood/fluid
Cholinergic receptors in the CNS are being investigated for their role in what disease?
Alzheimers disease
A decreased rate of contraction in the heart is known as what effect?
negative chronotropic effect
A decreased force of contraction in the heart is known as what effect?
negative ionotropic effect
What are the two types of cholinergic receptors?
-Nicotinic
-Muscarinic
Nicotinic and Muscarinic are what type of receptors?
Cholinergic
Nicotinic receptors bind _______.
nicotine
Muscarinic receptors bind __________.
muscarine
Both nicotine and muscarine make the compound basic and are known as _____________.
alkaloids
Where is nicotine found?
in tobacco
Where is muscarine found?
in poisionous mushrooms
Muscarine is found in what species of mushroom?
Amanita muscarina
Definition: nitrogen containing compounds; alkaline in nature and found in natural products
alkaloids
Draw the structure of nicotine
*see notes*
Nicotine has a __________ and __________ ring.
pyridine and pyrrolidine ring
T/F: Muscarinic receptors are coupled to ion channels
False; Nicotinic receptors are coupled to ion channels
A completely saturated pyrrole ring is known as what?
a pyrrolidine
Draw the structure of pyrrole
*see notes*
Nicotinic receptors produce an effect in how many milliseconds?
0.1 to 10 milliseconds
In nicotinic receptors, passage of ions causes the electrical excitability of the ______ and ______ cells.
nerve and muscle cells
In nicotinic receptors, the binding of ACh causes the excitability of the _______ cells.
sensory cells (sent from the periphery to the CNS)
What type of ion channel is a nicotinic receptor?
a ligand-gated ion channel
A nicotinic receptor is a glycoprotein consisting of how many subunits?
Five
Identify the five subunits of the nicotinic receptor
2 alpha, beta, gamma, delta
What is a glycoprotein made of?
a protein and a carbohydrate
ACh binds to the _______ subunit of the nicotinic receptor
alpha
Is the Ionotropic or Metabotropic effect faster?
Ionotropic (b/c the receptor is also an ion channel); The metabotropic effect has a lagtime due to the downstream process
Where are the NTs released?
at the synapse
Where is the nicotinic receptor located?
at the neuromuscluar junction
Definition: Contraction of skeletal muscle; where the nerve innervates the muscle
Neuromuscular Junction
What type of disease is Myasthenia gravis?
autoimmune disease
List two symptoms of Myasthenia gravis
-muscle weakness
-drooping eyelids
-lethargy
-possible paralysis
Muscle weakness, lethargy, drooping eyelids and possible paralysis are symptoms of what autoimmune disease?
myasthenia gravis
Where is the target location of muscle relaxants?
NMJ
A blockade of the autonomic ganglia can cause severe hypertention or hypotention?
hypotention
A blockade of the ___________ can cause severe hypotention
autonomic ganglia
T/F: The role of the nicotinic receptor is not completely understood in the CNS
True
In an autoimmune disease the nicotinic receptors are destroyed by the _____________ of the body.
antibodies
T/F: The autonomic ganglia causes a blockate that blocks the effect of ACh at the NMJ.
True
What three drugs block N1 receptors?
-decamenthonium
-d-tubocurarine
-succinyl chloride
Where are N1 receptors located?
NMJ
Where are N2 receptors located?
Autonomic ganglia
N2 receptors are blocked by ________________.
hexamethonium
Does Hexamethonium block N1 or N2 receptors?
N2 receptors
Does Decamenthonium block N1 or N2 receptors?
N1 receptor
Does D-tubocurarine blocks N1 or N2 receptors?
N1 receptors
Does succinyl chloride block N1 or N2 receptors?
N1 receptors
*List some nicotinic receptor subtypes?
Decamethonium
Succinylcholine
Hexamethonium
Draw the structure of furan
*see notes*
Definition: Basic structure found in compound that classifies it as a certain drug
pharmacophore
Definition: A fully saturated furan ring?
Tethra hydro furan (THF)
What type of ring does muscarine have?
a tetrahydrofuran ring
_____________ receptors mediate most of ACh responses.

(nicotinic or muscarinic)
muscarinic
ACh on muscarinic receptors stimulates secretion of _________ and ________ glands.
salivary and sweat glands
ACh on muscarinic receptors stimulates _____________ and ____________ of the gut.
secretions and contraction
ACh on muscarinic receptors _____________ airways of respiratory tract.

(constricts/dialiates)
constricts
ACh on muscarinic receptors _____________ contraction of heart.

(increases/decreases)
decreases
ACh on muscarinic receptors ___________ smooth muscles of blood vessels.

(contracts/relaxes)
relaxes (causes vasodialation)
ACh on muscarinic receptors _____________ secretions and contraction of the gut.

(stimulates/inhibits)
stimulates
ACh on muscarinic receptors ____________ secretion of salivary and sweat glands.

(stimulates/inhibits)
stimulates
Muscarinic Receptors are present in what two nervous systems?
CNS and PNS
How many transmembrane helical proteins make up the muscarinic receptor?
SEVEN transmembrane helical protein domain
What are the three structural domains of a muscarinic receptor.
-seven transmembrane helical protein domain
-intracellular domain
-extracellular domain
Muscarinic receptors are __-protein coupled receptors.
G-protein
Are G-protein coupled receptors muscarinic or nicotinic?
muscarinic
Definition: A family of proteins that binds to the guanine nucleotides (GTP, GDP, etc)
G-proteins
Is the transmission of impulse faster in nicotinic or muscarinic receptors?
nicotinic
Why is the transmission of impulse in muscarinic receptors is slower than nicotinic receptors?
the second messenger cascade
Apprx. what is the transmission of impulse in muscarinic receptors (in msec)?
~100 msec
What are the two componets of the muscarinic second messenger cascade?
-adenylate cyclase system
-phosphoinositol system
Where is the storage site for calcium?
Endoplasmic Reticulum
How many muscarinic receptor subtypes are there?
Five subtypes (M1 through M5)
Where is the M1 subtype located?
mostly in the CNS, also in GIT
Where is the M2 subtype located?
mostly in the heart
Where is the M3 subtype located?
exocrine glands and smooth muscle
Where is the M4 subtype located?
tracheal smooth muscle
Where is the M5 subtype located?
tissue location is still under investigation
EDRF
Endothelium derived relaxing factor
What subtype is located mostly in the CNS and also in the GIT?
M1
What subtype is located mostly in the CNS and also in the GIT?
M1
What subtype is found mostly in the heart?
M2
What muscarinic subtype is found in the exocrine glands and smooth muscle?
M3
What muscarinic subtype is found in the tracheal smooth muscle?
M4
Which muscarinic receptor is thought to be involved in Alzheimers Disease?
M1
What three muscarinic receptors cause stimulaton of PLC
M1, M3 and M5
What two muscarinic receptor subtypes cause inhibition of adenylate cyclase?
M2 and M4
M2 and M4 cause inhibition of ____________.
adenylate cyclase
M1, M3 and M5 cause stimulation of __________
PLC (coupled to Gs protein)
What is another name for Endothelium derived relaxing factor (EDRF)?
Nitric Oxide
What is the function of EDRF or nitric oxide?
it is a potent vasodialator
What are the two main types of G proteins?
Gq (stimulatory)
Gi (inhibitory)
What is the name of the main stimulatory G protein?
Gq
What is the name of the main inhibitory G protein?
Gi