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27 Cards in this Set

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Atelectasis
collapse of the alveoli in a lung segment
4 main mechanisms/categories of atelectasis
-resorption
-compression
-contraction
-diffuse microatelectasis
Resorption atelectasis
-obstruction in the airway prevents ventilation so the existing air in alveoli gets absorbe and they collapse
Typical obstructions in atelectasis
-bronchus obstruction by mucus or plug
-foreign body
-tumor
-enlarged lymph nodes (TB)
Compression Atelectasis
"something" nudges the lung out of the way:
-pleural effusion
-tumor
-emphysematous bullae
-cardiomegaly
-elevated position of diaphragm in patients:
-bedridden after sx with
ascites
Pneumothorax:
considered to be passive atelectasis
contraction atelectasis
aka: cicatization
-caused by local generalized fibrosis of the lung or pleura
diffuse microatelectasis
-generalized loss of lung expansion due to inadequate surfactant
diffuse microatelectasis:
causes
-O2 toxicity
-neonatal or adult resp. distress syndrome
-infection, which may caues ARDS
S/S of Atelectasis
-dyspnea, cyanosis
-tracheal deviation
-uneven chest expansion
-dec'd
Prophylaxis
-encourage ventilation
-incentive spirometry
-coughing
-early ambulation
-use narcotics sparingly
-turn pt. hourly
Treatment of Atelectasis
-resp. therapy
-vibropercussion/postural draining
-position recumbant pt. withh affected lung uppermost to encourage drainage
-fiberoptic bronchoscopy to remove mucus plug or FB
-ABX for infx
COPD
strictly denotes:
-Emphysema
-chronic Bronchitis
Emphysema
permanent enlargment of the airspaces distal to the terminal bronchioles, due to inflammation induce destruction of the walls of the
-resp. bronchioles
-alveolar ducts
-alveoli
lobule
collection of 3 or more acinus
3 types of emphysema
-centriacinar
-panacina
-distal acinar
Centriacinar
-resp. bronchioles are enlarged
-distal alveoli are spared
-more common at lung apex
-due to smoking
Panacina (aka panlobular)
-entire acinus uniformly enlarged
-more common at lung base
-due to genetic alpha-antitypinase deficiency
distal acinar (aka paraseptal)
-far peripheral acini, close to hte lung pelura are enlarged
-thought to caues spontaneous PTX in young adults (often tall/thin)
emphysema S/S
-progressive dyspnea
-airway obstruction
-loss of alveolar capillaries
LABS emphysema
-dec'd FEV1 with near-normal FVC
-FEV1/FVC ratio <75%
-FEF 25-75%
-inc'd arterial pCO2 above 40 mmHG
treatment of emphysema
-bronchodilators
-anticholinergic inhaler
-Beta2 agonist
-inhaled steroids for exacerbations
O2 Supplementation (PO2 not above 65 mmHG)
Chronic Bronchitis
def:
the presence of a:
-mucus producing cough, most days of the month
-3 mo.s of the year for 2 successive years w/out other underlying disease to explain cough
-Blue Bloater
Treatment of CB
-stop smoking
-avoid air pollution
-inhaled bronchodilator
Asthma
inflammatory lung disease characterized by:
-airway inflammation w/out infx
-inc'd airway reactivity
-airway obstruction & acute dyspnea due to bronchospasm & mucous plug
Extrinsic Asthma
3 types
-atopic
-occupational
-allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
Atopic Asthma
-most common
-onset first 2 decades
-often allergy manifestations
-inc'd serum IgE, Inc'd blood eosinophil count