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### 10 Cards in this Set

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 What do measures of association do? provide a mathematical assessment of the relationship between a given exposure (determinant of disease) and the outcome (disease) of interest used in obsercational and experimental studies -odd ratio -relative risk -attributable risk What does odds measure? odds is used to measure exposure to the disease and the non disease odds = number exposed / number not exposed What is a odds ratio? the ratio of the offs of exposure in diseased to the odds of exposure in the non diseased odds ratio = odds of exposure in the diseased/ odds of exposure in the non diseased What does it mean if odds ratio is equal to 1? odds of exposure among cases is equal to that of controls no association What does it mean if the odds ratio is greater than 1? odds of exposure among cases is greater than that of controls positive association, possible causality What does it mean if the odds ration is less than one? odds of exposure among cases is less than that of controls negative association possible protective When is incidence (risk) used? used to compare the amount of disease that occurs in the exposed and unexposed groups both exposed and unexposed are non diseased at the beginning of the study What is cumulative incidence? number of new cases at the end of the study divided by the population at risk at the beginning of the study What is incidence density? number of new cases at the end of the study divided by animal-time risk What is relative risk used to compare? used to compare the risk (incidence) of disease that occurs in the exposed and unexposed groups