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10 Cards in this Set

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What do measures of association do?
provide a mathematical assessment of the relationship between a given exposure (determinant of disease) and the outcome (disease) of interest

used in obsercational and experimental studies

-odd ratio
-relative risk
-attributable risk
What does odds measure?
odds is used to measure exposure to the disease and the non disease

odds = number exposed / number not exposed
What is a odds ratio?
the ratio of the offs of exposure in diseased to the odds of exposure in the non diseased

odds ratio = odds of exposure in the diseased/ odds of exposure in the non diseased
What does it mean if odds ratio is equal to 1?
odds of exposure among cases is equal to that of controls

no association
What does it mean if the odds ratio is greater than 1?
odds of exposure among cases is greater than that of controls

positive association, possible causality
What does it mean if the odds ration is less than one?
odds of exposure among cases is less than that of controls

negative association
possible protective
When is incidence (risk) used?
used to compare the amount of disease that occurs in the exposed and unexposed groups

both exposed and unexposed are non diseased at the beginning of the study
What is cumulative incidence?
number of new cases at the end of the study divided by the population at risk at the beginning of the study
What is incidence density?
number of new cases at the end of the study divided by animal-time risk
What is relative risk used to compare?
used to compare the risk (incidence) of disease that occurs in the exposed and unexposed groups