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67 Cards in this Set

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1). Types of crust on the Earth's moon.
Composition and Origin of Surficial Rock Types on Earth's Moon

Lunar Regolith

- gray pulverized rock fragments and dust which cover entire lunar surface.

- product of continuous bolide impacts, unimpeded by an atmosphere.

- glass produced by rapid heating upon impact, followed by rapid cooling.

- regolith has composition of lunar rocks so extraterrestrial input is minimal.

Lunar Highlands and Maria

- lunar highlands composed of plagioclase feldspar versus basaltic maria in lowlands.

- lunar highlands stand higher above lowlands than do Earth's mountains.

- old highlands (4.5 Ga) are deeply cratered whereas young (3.2 -> 3.9 Ga) basalt is less cratered. The mare filled in former craters.

- highlands formed of anorthosite only 100 Ma after accretion.

- highlands are in isostatic equilibrium. The mountains have roots. Hence asthenosphere existed
2). Earth and other planets that lie near the Sun have become enriched in ____ ___. Light-weight elements either did not ______ near the hot Sun or were blown away during early ____ ____ ____.
dense elements;condense; solar thermonucear explosions
3). The Sun's mass of the Sun is vastly ____ than the ___ of the masses of all the planets.
greater; sum
). The Sino-Japanese word for Earth is
see drawing I
5). NASA is planning to send someone to another planet
MERCURY or Saturn?
6). The top three elements in our Sun are ___, ___, and ___. Next comes ____, ___, and _____.
(hydrogen, helium, and oxygen);( carbon nitrogen and silicon)
7). Coastal countries in Africa.
Laurasia: northern half, consisting of Laurentia + Eurasia --- Gondwanaland: southern half, consisting of Africa + South America. --- break- up occurred during Mesozoic. --- Wegener's evidence for Pangaea: --- 300 Ma glaciations which are found only in southern Hemisphere. N. Hemisphere rocks then lay closer to the equator
8). T/FNASA has detected light coming from Solar Systems that began to form shortly after ours did.
True
9). T/F Jupiter radiates more heat than it receives from the Sun
True
10). Regions on the seafloor where the average grain size tends to be coarse (sandy).
Basalt?
11). When a ____ ____cracks and the opposite sides diverge, the Earth acquires ____ crust.
lithospheric; plate; new
12). A ____ ____ ____ in northeastern Africa lies at the ____ end of the East ____ Rift Valley, the northern end of the ____ mid-oceanic ridge, and the southern end of the ___ Sea.
nearshore triple junction; nothern end; African; Carlsberg; Red
13). Just ___ plates constitute the bulk of Earth's lithosphere
Six
14). Typical physical properties of ionically-bonded minerals.
solid, naturally formed, specific composition and crystal structure
15). T/FMost chemical elements bond readily but some do not.
True
16). Reducing versus oxidizing chemical environments.
All metal atoms are characterized by their tendency to be oxidized, losing one or more electrons, forming a positively charged ion, called a cation. During this oxidation reaction , the oxidation state of the metal always increases from zero to a positive number, such as "+1, +2, +3...."

The electrons lost by the metal are not destroyed but gained by the nonmetal, which is said to be reduced. As the nonmetal gains the electrons lost by the metal, it forms a negatively charged ion, called an anion. During this reduction reaction, the oxidation state of the nonmetal always decreases from zero to a negative value (-1, -2, -3 ...) depending on the number of electrons gained.
17). 3He and 4He.
Naturally occurring isotopes
18). The atmosphere contains about __% O2 and __to__ ppb (parts per billion) ozone.
TBA 21; 20 to 40
19).In 1812 the Mohs scale of mineral hardness was devised by the German mineralogist Frederich Mohs (1773-1839), who selected the ten minerals because they were common or readily available. The scale is not a linear scale, but somewhat arbitrary
1
Talc Talcum powder.
2
Gypsum Plaster of paris. Gypsum is formed when seawater evaporates from the Earth’s surface.
3
Calcite Limestone and most shells contain calcite.
4
Fluorite Fluorine in fluorite prevents tooth decay.
5
Apatite When you are hungry you have a big "appetite".
6
Orthoclase Orthoclase is a feldspar, and in German, "feld" means "field".
7
Quartz
8
Topaz The November birthstone. Emerald and aquamarine are varieties of beryl with a hardness of 8.
9
Corundum Sapphire and ruby are varieties of corundum. Twice as hard as topaz.
10
Diamond Used in jewelry and cutting tools. Four times as hard as corundum.
20). Characteristic tetrahedral arrangements, e.g., single chain and double chain.
Tetra means four and Carbon can only have four bonds.
21). Types of volcanic rocks found in Mount St. Helens, Washington State.
More than 100 layers of volcanic ejecta*, or tephra* have been found around Mount St. Helens. These testify to its restless nature
22). Processes that commonly cause melting of rocks.


23). Tephra (pyroclastics).
Although this might seem like a simple question, there are many variables that determine whether a rock will melt at a given temperature. You did not specify C or F but I assume you mean F, which would be about 1100oC.
The type of rock is important. If you were trying to melt Hawaiian basalt lava, it would not melt, but it would glow bright orange. If you were trying to melt granite or a mixed sediment (not pure quartz or calcite, which occurs on some beaches) it would almost certainly melt. The presence of water in the rock is important to lower the melting temperature.
Other important factors are time and grain size. The smaller the grain size and the longer you hold it at the temperature, the more likely the rock will melt.
23). Tephra (pyroclastics).
Tephra is a general term for fragments of volcanic rock and lava regardless of size that are blasted into the air by explosions or carried upward by hot gases in eruption columns or lava fountains. Such fragments range in size from less than 2 mm (ash) to more than 1 m in diameter. Large-sized tephra typically falls back to the ground on or close to the volcano and progressively smaller fragments are carried away from the vent by wind. Volcanic ash, the smallest tephra fragments, can travel hundreds to thousands of kilometers downwind from a volcano.
24). Typical temperatures of basaltic magma erupting on the seafloor.
Basaltic magma is high in temperature and low in silica, so it is quite fluid. In contrast, granitic magma is lower in temperature and higher in silica, so it is viscouss. The difference between 50% silica in basaltic magma and 70% silica in granitic magma has a large effect on viscosity or it is viscous. The difference between 50% silica in basaltic magma and 70% silica in granitic magma has a large effect on viscosity or stickiness of magma, as does the difference between hight temperature (900-1200degrees C) basaltic magma and relatively low temperature (600-800degrees C) granitic/ andesitic magma. Fluid basaltic magma flows easily and quickly, so it is likely to rise the entire way from its deep source to the surface, where it erupts. This quick passage to earth's surface also explains why basaltic magma is so hot: it has little time to cool on the way up.
25). Bowen's Reaction Series.Back in the early 1900's, N. L. Bowen and others at the Geophysical Laboratories in Washington D.C. began experimental studies into the order of crystallization of the common silicate minerals from a magma. The idealized progression which they determined is still accepted as the general model for the evolution of magmas during the cooling process. As with everything else in geology, there are exceptions to this rule (see Strickler's 1st Law of GeoFantasy), but for the most part it works.
Bowen determined that specific minerals from at specific temperatures as a magma cools. At the higher temperatures associated with mafic and intermediate magmas, the general progression can be separated into two branches. The continuous branch describes the evolution of the plagioclase feldspars as they evolve from being calcium-rich to more sodium rich. The discontinuous branch describes the formation of the mafic minerals olivine, proxene, amphibole, and biotite mica.
26). Igneous rock with crystals that have grown to be larger than 2 cm
Magma that is injected and crystallized below the surface forms intrusive igneous rocks. Because they cool more slowly than extrusive rocks, intrusive igneous rocks are generally coarse-grained (>1mm). A very course- grained igneous rock (>2cm) is called **pegmatite.
27). ______ Needles, carved from a red igneous rock with abundant _____.
Cleopatra's; Feldspar
28). Within an arid soil profile, one may find a _ ____.
K horizon
29). In which countries would one expect to find the most Oxisol?
Oxisols are typically found in tropical climates. They are characterized by being deep, red, very strongly weathered soils.
30). In which of the US States would one expect to find the most Spodosol?
Michigan? Soils with an east horizon and illuvial sesquioxides, usually very sandy, acid forest litter.
31). ____ increase the surface area per unit ____ of rock, thereby enhancing weathering.
Joints; volume
32). Spheroidal weathering within a soil profile.
check?
33). Balancing chemical reactions.
check
34). Sedimentary structures such as cross-bedding, graded bedding, and mud cracks.
Layering within a bed is inclined to the main bedding plane to form the cross beds. Steeply dipping parts of the layers are called foresets in limestones and dolomites.

Graded Bedding- related to to a change in grain size upwards through a bed, this is due to changes in flow conditions durnign a period of sedimentation.
35). T/F Life has the approximate chemical composition of CH2O. A more precise formula would be 106 {CH2O} 16{NH3} H3PO4.
T
36). _____ commonly consists of fragments of marine animals such as ___ and ____ that lived in a shallow marine environment.
Limestone; coral and clams
37). ____ are tiny round grains with onion-like layering. Most ____ are composed of CaCO3.
Ooids
38). _____ form in cold-climate lakes, e.g., in _____.
Varves; Minnesota
39). Major rivers typically supply substantial _____ to an adjacent continental slope and rise, producing a ____ fan.
sediment; deep-sea
40). Beaches in the Bahamas are mostly composed of ____.
CaCO3
41). Contact metamorphism
occurs as a result of a high geothermal gradient previously, contact metamorphism occurs as a result of a hight geothermal gradient produced locally around intruding magma.
42). _____ involves the transformation of a previously-existing rock, called a ______.
Metamorphism; protolith
43). _____ metamorphism requires a minimum temperature of about 200oC. Given a normal geothermal gradient under a continental shelf of 35 o/km, one may calculate the ___ ___ needed to reach 200oC.
Burial; minimum subsidence
44). _____ in metamorphosed shale mostly reflects pressure differences.
Foliation
45). Chlorite is crystallographically related to a larger mineral group.
The chlorites are often, but not always considered a subset of the larger silicate group. "The Clays"
46). Volatile chemical components
from chloroform and pesticides to carbon tetrachloride.
47). Protoliths for marble and quartzite
Marble is made up of calcite (or some other carbonate)

quartztie is made only of quartz
48). During ___ ____, the individual mineral grains in a coarse-grained rock such as granite may become shattered and pulverized.
cataclastic metamorhism
49). Volumes of rock that may be affected by regional metamorphism
Mountain Systems
50). Kyanite, sillimanite, and andalusite share the same chemical formula, ____.
SiAl205
1). Types of crust on the Earth's moon
The moon's crust, about 60=150km thick, followed by the lithosphere (major portion) 1000km thick. The core of the moon has a soft partially molten zone and a solid zone.
2). Earth and other planets that lie near the Sun have become enriched in dense elements,why?
Light-weight elements either did not condense near the hot Sun or were blown away during early solar thermonuclear explosions.
3).T/F The Sun's mass of the Sun is vastly greater than the sum of the masses of all the planets.
T
4). The Sino-Japanese word for Earth is
see drawing II
5). NASA is planning to send someone to another planet.
Saturn or Mercury?
). The top three elements in our Sun are hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. What are the next three in order?
Next comes carbon, nitrogen, and silicon
8). NASA has detected light coming from Solar Systems that began to form shortly after ours did
NASA detects light from exoplanets with coverage of the Nasa Cassini Saturn and Mars missions.
).T/F Jupiter radiates more heat than it receives from the Sun.
True
10). Regions on the seafloor where the average grain size tends to be coarse (sandy).
?
11). When a _____ plate cracks and the opposite sides diverge, the Earth acquires new ____.
lithospheric; crust
28). Within an arid soil profile, one may find a K horizon.
A
31). ____ increase the surface area per unit volume of rock, thereby enhancing ____
Joints; weathering
35). Life has the approximate chemical composition of CH2O. A more precise formula would be 106 {CH2O} 16{NH3} H3PO4.
a
43). Burial metamorphism requires a minimum temperature of about 200oC. Given a normal geothermal gradient under a continental shelf of 35 o/km, one may calculate the minimum subsidence needed to reach 200oC.
a
44). Foliation in metamorphosed shale mostly reflects pressure differences.
a
48). During cataclastic metamorphism, the individual mineral grains in a coarse-grained rock such as granite may become shattered and pulverized.
a
50). Kyanite, sillimanite, and andalusite share the same chemical formula, SiAl2O5.
a