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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Occurs in the absence of an underlying cause, affecting tall thin men between ages of 20 to 40.
Primary Pneumothorax
This condition is thought to occur from rupture of subpleural apical blebs in response to high neg pressures
Primary Pneumothorax
This may require a chest tube insertion or thoracentesis
Large Primary Pneumothorax
A check valve mechanism allowing air to enter the pleural space on inspiration and prevents egress of air on expiration is used for what condition?
Tension Pneumothorax
An alternate method to relieve a tension pneumothorax is to insert a needle into what space of the body?
4&5th IC at ant. axillary line (Lange's Emergency)
In a presence of a hemothorax with neg trauma, grossly bloody pleural fluid most likely suggest what?
Lung cancer or pulmonary embolism
What may occur from penetrating or blunt trauma of either the chest or the abdomen?
Diaphragmatic Rupture
Which ribs are rarely injured except by severe trauma? Which associated injuries are common and what should be considered?
1&2 ribs
Neurovascular injuries
Aortic Arch Arteriography
When neg intrathoracic pressure is developed during inspiration, the unstable (flail) segment moves (where)and markedly reduces (what)?
Inward and tidal volume
Describe paradoxical movement of the flail segment?
Inward movement w/ inspiration due to instability of all or a portion of the chest
Tachypnea, tachycardia, crackles and accentuation of the pulmonary component of the second heart sound are signs of what?
Pulmonary Embolism
This is characterized by noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, respiratory distress, bilat infiltrates, and hypoxemia
Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
What common medical emergency is precipitated by a variety of acute processes that directly/indirectly injure the lung?
Adult Resp. Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
This is an acute inflammation of the tracheo-bronchial tree, generally self-limited and with eventual complete healing and return of function?
What is the preferred drug during anaerobic infection for Aspiration Pneumonia?
Aqueous Penicillin G or Clindamycin
What is an acute infection of the lung parenchyma?
What causes pneumoccocal pneumonia?
S. pneumoniae (most common cause of bacterial pneumonia)
In lobar pneumonia tactile fremitus is what?
What is the preferred agent for Pneumococcal Pneumonia?
Pen G or V
What should not be used for seriously ill pt's in Pneumococcal Pneumonia?
What symptoms does a PT usually present when a lung abscess is present?
Fever, Weight Loss, and malaise
A PT w/ a lung abscess with a foul-smelling (putrid) purulent sputum is diagnostic for what type of lung abscess?
Anaerobic bacterial infection
What is the preferred drug for a tx of a lung abscess?
Clindamycin IV until improvement and then PO
What is the most common cause of atypical pneumonia?
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
A PT that presents with chest px, by local pressure or deep breathing w/ tenderness localized over affected side and skin may be warm swollen and red may have what dx's?
What is inflammation of the pleura, usually producing an exudative pleural effusion and stabbing chest px worsened by respiration & cough?
Hyperphnea, Paresthesias, Carpopedal spasm, Tetany, and Anxiety are characteristics of what condition?
Acute hyperventilation
What are non-specific symptoms of chronic hyperventilation?
Fatigue, Dyspnea, Anxiety, Palpitations, and Dizziness
What is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by granulomatous inflammation of the lung in about 90% of PT's?
Chronic bronchitis is characterized by excessive secretion of bronchial mucus and is manifested by what?
A productive cough for 3 months or 2 consec. yrs w/ no other disease that might acct. for this symptom
Abnormal, permanent enlargement of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole, w/ destruction of their walls and w/o obvious fibrosis is what?
Most pt's of COPD have features of what?
Emphysema(Type A COPD) and chronic bronchitis (Type B COPD)
What is Type A COPD?
What is Type B COPD?
Chronic bronchitis
What are signs of early stages of COPD?
A mild smoker's cough, Wheezing, and gradually progressive exertional dyspnea
What is the most common presenting complaint in the early stages of COPD?
Gradually progressive exertional dyspnea
A trial of what drugs is warranted in all pt's with symptomatic COPD?
This type of chemical may result from combustion of wood and petroleum products, can cause pulmonary edema/bronchospam and short exposure can be fatal.
This type of chemical may result from the combustion of structural components found in high rise buildings, as well as in furnishings and plastics.
Hydrochloric acid
What are the signs of an impending airway obstruction?
Labored/rapid breathing, stridor, severe wheezing, and progressive decrease in air exchange
What may develop hrs after exposure to a chemical smoke inhalation injury?
Pulmonary edema
What are characteristics of carbon monoxide poisoning?
HA, Tachycardia, Irritability, Cutaneous flushing, Mental confusion, vomiting, incontinence, cyanosis or pallor
This is characterized by an increased responsiveness of the trachea and bronchi to various stimuli.
What type of asthma is caused by the release of histamine, serum eosinophilia, and produces an anaphylaxis-like reaction? Includes episodic or paroxymal symptoms.
Allergic or Extrinsic Asthma
In exercise induced asthma, attacks usually occur how long after?
5-10 minutes after exercise
Resp. distress at rest, hyperpnea, use of accessory muslces, marked wheezes, air exchange is normal or decreased are characteristics of what classification of asthma?
Moderate Asthma (Stage II)
What is the alternate tx of mild to moderate asthma?
If there are no response after 3 aerosol tx's, and/or epinephrine injections, what is indicated for the tx of mild to moderate asthma?
IV aminophylline
What is the most common and prominent sign of hypoxia?
What medication can be used for prevention and treatment of mountain sickness (hypoxia)?
Acetazolamide (or dexamethasone)
This presents with a characteristic clinical picture of severe dyspnea, production of pink, frothy sputum, diaphoresis, and cyanosis.
Pulmonary Edema
What drug is highly effective by increasing venous capacitance, lowering L atrial pressure, and relieving anxiety. Used in the tx of pulmonary edema.
What is the most common type of carcinoma that frequently arises in the larger bronchi and commonly spreading by direct extension and lymph node metastasis?
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
SCC accounts for what % of primary lung tumors?
Undifferentiated Small Cell Carcinoma accounts for % of primary lung tumors?
These primary lung tumors occur centrally and tend to narrow the bronchi by extrinsic compression.
Undifferentiated small cell carcinoma
What late symptoms may be seen in a patient with lung cancer?
Weight loss and weakness
What is the most common systemic complaint in a patient with lung cancer?
Weight Loss
What is the tx of choice for small cell carcinoma and results in considerable improvement in median survival?
Combination chemotherapy