Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In blunt abdominal trauma, common injuries that include splenic rupture and liver fractures are caused by what?
Direct impact
What type of blunt abdominal trauma is associated with high speed MVA's and falls from heights.
What type of blunt abdominal trauma is associated with being run over, and extensive soft tissue loss?
Shear forces
In blunt abdominal trauma what are some associated injury syndromes with insidious onset?
Rib FX
Pelvic FX
Thoracic/ Lumbar FX
Abdominal Wall Injuries
In blunt abdominal trauma what are 3 modes of presentation that may be difficult to DX due to insidious on set?
Associated injury syndrome
Hypotensive shock syndrome
Peritonitis syndrome
A pt. that presents with fever, tachycardia, diffuse abdominal px and tenderness, and ileus after blunt abdominal trauma could be DX with what?
Peritonitis syndrome
What are some complications of blunt abdominal trauma?
Organ injury:

DIAPHRAGM <---- test answer
What is the disposition of a pt. with blunt abdominal trauma with evidence of peritonitist, unstable vital signs, or questionable DX?
What are the 2 classifications of penetrating abdominal wounds?
High and low velocity
What are the S/S of shock in penetrating abdominal trauma?
Cold, clammy skin
What signifies a serious visceral injury in penetrating abdominal trauma?
Rigidity and guarding
In blunt abdominal trauma what labs are done?

monitor HCT q6-8h
In an abdominal eviseration what is a wound management TX?
NS soaked sponges, apply dressing
Hemorrhoids are painful varicosities in the superior or inferior what?
Hemorrhoidal venous plexus
What can happen to internal hemorrhoids that bulge into rectal lumen during defecation?
They could prolapse
What are the classic features of peptic ulcer dz?
Rhythmicity and Periodicity
What are the 3 major causes of Peptic Ulcer Dz?
Chronic H. Pylori Infection
What is the hallmark symptom of PUD that is present in 80-90% of pt's?
Epigastric px
Which type of hemorrhoids are more likely to be thrombosed?
External hemorrhoids
What is the probable cause of hemorrhoids?
Increased intravenous pressure in the hemorrhoidal plexus.
What is a predisposing factor for hemorrhoids?
Heart Failure
A pt with hemorrhoids may state what about defecation in their HX?
That they have intermitten rectal bleeding after defecation.
If external hemorrhoids are thrombosed what might the pt. c/o in the anal area?
large subcutaneous lump
On physical examination external hemorrhoids will appear how?
As blue swellings at the anus.
How are internal hemorrhoids detected?
By digital rectal exam

Do the Dr. DRE
What can help prevent straining during defecation?
Stool softeners
What procedures can be used to treat hemorrhoids?
Ligation <--- test answer
What is the prognosis after hemorrhoid TX?
Hemorrhoids will resolve but have an increased incidence of recurrence.
What is a localized infection that appears as a collection of pus due to inflammation of the soft tissue of the anus or rectum?
Anorectal abscess
In anorectal abscess or fistula what is the first SX a pt. will report in the HX of the illness?
Throbbing rectal pain.
Why might a pt with a anorectal abscess or fistula complain about sitting?
They have a hard painful lump on one side.
What might a DRE detect in a pt. with suspected Anorectal abscess or Fistula?
A palpable indurated tract and a depression or ulcer in the midline anteriorly or at the dentate line posteriorly
What is the TX for Anorectal abscess?
Surgical I&D under caudal anesthesia.
Pilonidal cyst incidence is highest among who?
Hirsute white males 18-30
What are the causes of Pilonidal cyst?
Stretching or irritation of sacrococcygela area
Poor hygiene
Excessive sweat
Tight clothes
Sedentary life style
Discharge in a Pilonidal cyst usually doesn't contain what?
Bowel bacteria
What is a conservative TX for a Pilonidal cyst?
Extraction of hair
Sitz baths
Anal fissures are also known as what?
Fissura in ano
What is a laceration or crack in the lining of the anus that extends to the circular muscle?
Anal Fissure (fissura in ano)
Which type of anal fissure is the rarer type and is 10 times more common in females?
Anterior anal fissure
What are the 2 possible causes of an anterior anal fisssure?
Child birth or rarely from stricture caused by scar tissue.
What is the TX for an acute anal fissure?
Local pain relief with analgesics
Sitz bath
Bulk producing agents
What is the key symptoms of peritonitis?
Sudden, severe diffuse ab px that localizes in the area of underlying disorder.
How do you decompress a bowel in a pt. with peritonitis?
By Nasogastric intubation
What disease associated with chronic gastritis causes chronic reflux of pancreatic secretions, bile, and bile acids from the duodenum into the stomach?
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD)
What is the TX for a pt. with gastritis and massive bleeding?
Blood replacement
Iced saline lavage
Sometimes surgery
What is the last resort in gastritis if conservative TX fails?
What is an inflammation of the stomach and small intestine that is a self limiting disorder. Can be referred to as travelers diarhhea.
In Gastroenteritis what would be a sign of poor hydration?
Poor skin tugor.
Regional enteritis is also known as what?
Crohn's disease
What inflammatory bowel disease may affect any part of the GI tract but usually involves the terminal ileum?
Crohn's disease (regional enteritis)
When would diarrhea be worse in a pt. with suspected Crohn's disease?
Emotional upset

Ingestion of poorly tolerated foods
In Crohn's disease what might a Barium enema show that would confirm the DX?
Fissures and narrowing of the intestines
What is the most common site for diverticula?
Sigmoid colon
Diverticular disease in the stomach may be a precursor to what 2 diseases?
1. Peptic disease
2. Neoplastic disease
Diverticular disease is most common in adults of what age?
45 and older
Diverticular disease affects what percentage of adults over age 60?
When food mixed with bacteria hardens in the diverticulum what is formed?
A fecalith
When food mixed with bacteria hardens in the diverticulum what occurs?
What might a pt. HX reveal in a person with possible diverticulitis?
Intermitten dull/ steady pain in LLQ
In appendicitis where does the pt. complain of pain?
McBurneys point (RLQ)
In the HX of appendicitis what might be found about a pt's sleeping position?
They may sleep with right knee bent to decrease pain.
Name 3 recommened antibiotics for preoperative administration in appendicitis?
What is the disease caused by gallstones partially or completely obstructing bile duct?
In a pt. with possible gallbladder disease when is an attack likely to occur?
After fatty meals or a large meal after fasting.
What disease is associated with, alcholism, trauma, and peptic ulcer disease in men?
What disease is associated Pancreatitis disease in women?
Biliary tract disease
What may be seen on Physical exam of a pt. with suspected Pancreatitis?
Generalized jaundice

Cullens sign (bluish periumbilical)

Turners sign (bluish flank discoloration)
What is the aim of therapy in a pt. with IBS?
Control SX with changes in diet, stress, and life style.
Ulcerative colitis occurs primarily in who?
Young adults, especially women.
Ulcerative colitis is more prevalent among who?
Jews and higher socioeconomic groups.
A pt with Ulcerative colitis may expeirence what during sleep?
Nocturnal diarrhea