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30 Cards in this Set

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What is torticollis? Include muscle and nerve involved
A contracted state of the cervical muscles
SCM spasm – served by CN XI
Describe muscle strength grading scale
0 – No movement
1 – Trace movement
2 – Full ROM, but not against gravity
3 – Full ROM against gravity, not against resistance
4 - Weak
5 - Normal
What are the expected findings on inspection of the spine?
Gentle lumbar lordosis, slight thoracic kyphosis, palpation of spinous processes at midline
What is the order of the joint examination
Inspection
Palpation
ROM- Active first, then passive if necessary
Neuro- Strength, sensation
Special tests
If the ASIS are uneven on physical exam, what is the next step in evaluating this abnormality? (Name and describe test)
Measure for true leg length discrepancy
Measured from just below the ASIS to the medial malleolus
What special tests of the knee evaluate the meniscus?
Apley’s Compression & McMurrays
What special tests of the knee evaluate the cruciate ligaments?
Drawer tests
What special tests of the knee evaluate the collateral ligaments?
Valgus stress test- MCL
Varus stress test- LCL
What are the postural signs of pain?
Guarding
Protective behavior
Hands over painful area
Distorted posture
Movements
Rocking, pacing, inability to keep hands still
What of the expected changes in VS in a patient with true pain?
Increase in:
Blood pressure
Pulse
Respiratory rate and depth
What is a nodule on the dorsolateral aspects of the distal interphalanges joint called? With what disease is it associated?
Heberden’s Nodes, OA
What is a nodule on the dorsolateral aspects of the proximal interphalanges joint called? With what disease is it associated?
Bouchard’s Node, RA
What is the expected position of the tibia in relation to the femur on a normal knee examination?
Valgus angulation
What are the signs and symptoms of L4-S1 radiculopathy?
Dermatomal weakness,paresthesia and/or pain
Can’t walk on toes if L4-5, on heels if L5-S1
Radiation of pain through buttocks, posterior thigh and down leg
Diminished knee or ankle DTR
What patient position may relieve radicular pain?
Lying supine
What is the relationship between Active and Passive ROM?
Passive ROM ~ 5degrees more than Active
What Lasegue Sign?
Raise leg while patient supine
What is a positive Lasegue sign?
Pt is unable to raise leg >30° without pain
What does a positive Lasegue sign indicate?
Radiculopathy
What is Yergason test? (Describe)
Elbow is flexed to 90° and the examiner resists the pt’s active attempts to supinate the arm and flex the elbow
What is a positive Yergason test indicate?
Biceps tendon instability or tendonitis
With regards to muscle strength testing, how do you evaluate: L4
Oppose dorsiflexion of the foot (walk on heels)
Tibialis anterior
With regards to muscle strength testing, how do you evaluate:S1
Extensor Hallucis Longus Test
Support foot with one hand around heel
Oppose dorsiflexion of great toe by pushing on nail bed of great toe.
With regards to muscle strength testing, how do you evaluate:L5
Oppose plantar flexion and eversion of foot (walk on toes/ medial aspect of foot)
Gastrocnemius-Soleus Muscle
Define: Bursa
Sac or saclike cavity filled with a viscid fluid
Define: Range of Motion
The angel, measured in degrees of a circle, through which a joint can be manipulated
Define: Sprain
Injury to a ligament when the joint is forced through a ROM greater than normal
Define: Strain
An overstretching or overexertion of the musculotendinous unit
Define: Osteoarthritis
Noninflammatory disorder of movable joints
Define: Rheumatoid arthritis
Chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder of joints