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33 Cards in this Set

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Anterior Pituitary Hormones
"FLAGTOP"
F: Follicle Stimulating Hormone
L: Luteinizing Hormone
A: ACTH
G: Growth Hormone
T: Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
O: MSH - melanOcyte stimulating hormone
P: Prolactin
FSH in males
directly stimulates spermatogenesis

sperm look like "FiSH"

In females, FSH obviously stimulates ovarian follicles (which secrete estrogens, which stimulate endometrial proliferation)
None
LH in males
stimulates androgen secretion

so males become "Like Hairy Apes" (LH ® A)

Androgens also stimulate spermatogenesis, so LH also indirectly stimulates spermatogenesis

In females, LH stimulates the corpus luteum (which secretes estrogens and progesterone, which stimulate the endometrium)
None
Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic
fight or flight

"need sympathy after getting beat up in a fight"
None
Autonomic Nervous System
Parasympathetic
rest and digest

"Ryan PARA is a fat lazy ass"
None
Causes of Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
"Misty May Gets No Sex"
Mutations
Migration
Genetic Drift
Non-random mating
Selection
None
Cell Cycle
"Go Sally Go! Make Children!"
G1, S, G2, M, C
Growth phase 1
DNA Synthesis (replication)
Growth phase 2
Mitosis
Cytokinesis
None
Mitosis
"People Meet And Talk"
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
None
Meiosis
"PMAT x2"
Prophase I
Metaphase I
Anaphase I
Telophase I
Prophase II
Metaphase II
Anaphase II
Telophase II

(Note: 4 haploid daughter cells instead of 2 diploid daughter cells)
None
Chordate Features
"Do Not Poke Pussy"
Dorsal - hollow nerve cord
Notochord
Pharyngeal slits
Postanal tail
None
Developmental Stages
"Must Be Good"
Morula
Blastula
Gastrula
None
Fat-soluble Vitamins
"ADEK"
Vitamins A,D,E,and K
None
Hormones that Increase Blood Glucose
"STENGG" (think stingy"
Somatotropin (growth hormone)
Thyroid hormones (thyroxine and triiodothyronine)
Epinephrine
Norepinephrine
Glucagon
Glucocorticosteroids
None
Immunoglobulins
"MADGE"
IgM, IgA, IgD, IgG, IgE
None
Kingdoms
"My Poor Friend Picks Apples"
Monera
Protista
Fungi
Plants
Animals
None
Male Reproductive Tract (path of sperm)
"SEVEN UP"
Seminiferous tubules Epididymis
Vas deferens
Ejaculatory duct
(Nothing)
Urethra
Penis
None
Menstrual Cycle
"FOL(d) M(a)PS"
Ovarian cycle:
Follicular phase
Ovulatory phase
Luteal phase

Menstrual cycle:
Menstrual flow
Proliferative phase
Secretory phase

The ovarian cycle controls the menstrual cycle

The cycles begin (day 0) when menstrual flow starts

At day 14, the luteal and secretory phases begin and last until day 28, after which the cycles begin again
None
"EXons EXpressed, INtrons IN the trash"
DNA expression into mature mRNA
"CUT the PY"
Cytosine, Uracil, and Thiamine are PYrimidines (one-ring structures)
"AGgies are PURe of heart"
Adenine and Guanine are PURines (two-ring structures)
"All Tigers Can Growl"
Adenine bonds to Thymine
Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve
Think of an exercising muscle for a rightward shift:
Exercising muscle is:
hot
acidic (lactic acid)hypercarbic
and has increased 2,3-DPG

Exercising muscle benefits from increased oxygen unloading from red blood cells
None
Proteases in the Duodenum
"Eat That Chick's Cunt Evenly"
Enterokinase
Trypsin
Chymotrypsin
Carboxypeptidase
Elastase

Note: The first enzyme is produced by intestinal mucosal cells, while the others are produced in inactive precursor forms by the pancreas.

Enterokinase converts trypsinogen into trypsin

Trypsin converts other trypsinogen molecules into trypsin

Trypsin converts chymotrypsinogen into chymotrypsin

Trypsin converts procarboxypeptidase into carboxypeptidase

Trypsin converts proelastase into elastase
None
Inductive Reasoning
"IS GOHH"
Induction: Specific ® General. Or, Observation ® Hypothesis ® Hypothesis-testing.

The inductive process proceeds from specific observations to a general hypothesis.
None
Deductive Reasoning
"D(o)GS"
Deduction: General Specific

The deductive process proceeds from a general hypothesis to predictions about specific observations
None
Sedimentation
Rate of SeDimentation is proportional to Size and Density
More precisely, terminal velocity of particle radius2 x (density - density of medium)
None
Sizes
"Bowel Movement" or "BM"
A Bacterium is about 1 Micron (1 m),A eukaryotic cell is about 10 times larger (10 m),A virus is about 100 times smaller (0.01 m)

Note: these are very, very rough guides. The ranges of sizes are wide.
None
Striated Muscle
"iZIAH has big muscles"
Z-line
I-band
A-band
H-zone
None
Taxonomy
"King Phillip Came Over For Grape Soda"
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
None
Vertebrate Features
"CEVASACK"
Cephalization
Endoskeleton
Vertebrae
Axial skeleton
Skull
Appendicular skeleton
Closed circulatory system
Kidneys
None
White Blood Cells
(In order of decreasing numbers.)
"Nobody Likes My Educational Background"
Neutrophils
Lymphocytes
Monocytes
Eosinophils
Basophils
None
Posterior Pituitary
"AO"
ADH (anti-diuretic hormone or vasopressin) -
targets kidneys
retain water
reduce urine
raise blood pressure by inducing moderate vasoconstriction

Oxytocin - labor contractions, lactation

possible role sperm transport, emotional bonding
Gastrointestinal Hormones
"Good Sex Excites Cock"
originates in the GI tract

Hormone
Source
Target
Triggers
Effects

Gastrin:
Gastric mucosa
Stomach
Food in stomach,psychic factors
Increased HCl secretion & gastric emptying

Secretin:
Gastric mucosa
Pancreas
Acid in duodenum
Increased bicarbonate secretion

Enterogastrone (gastric inhibitory peptide):
Duodenal mucosa
Stomach
Fat digestion products in duodenum
Decreases gastric emptying

Cholecystokinin (CCK):
Duodenal mucosa
Gall bladder & pancreas
Amino acids, peptides, fatty acids in duodenum
Contraction of gallbladder & secretion of pancreatic juice