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37 Cards in this Set

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What is public opinion?
“It is a collection of the sum of individual opinions on an issue affecting those individuals.”
“It is a collection of views held by persons interested in the subject.”
It does not anticipate events, it reacts to them.
Types of opinion leaders?
They serve as catalysts for the formation of public opinion. Formal opinion leaders (i.e. elected officials)
Informal opinion leaders (have some special characteristics)
The role of mass media in PR?
Public relations practitioners try to shape public opinion by using the mass media.
Sending a message IS NOT the same as communicating a message
The mass media decide what will be on the agenda
What is agenda setting theory?
It is the ability of the mass media to tell us what is important. The media tell the public what to think about but not necessary what to think.
The media help set the agenda for public and government discussions. Groups call attention to issues they care about. Media gatekeepers
What is framing theory?
Writers decide what to include in a story.There is a pattern:
Lives lost or lives saved
Positive or negative information Is there a hero?
What is persuasion?
“It is an activity or process in which a communicator attempts to induce a change in the belief, attitude, or behavior of another person or group of persons through the transmission of a message in a context in which the persuadee has some degree of free choice.”
What is Ethos?
Selecting spokesperson
Trustworthy
Readily recognizable
At little risk for negative publicity
Matched with your public
Endorsements can bring unwanted attention.
What is Logos?
Logical Arguement Propositions
Factual – show evidence
Value – identify the virtue of something
Policy – identify new course of action and encourage its adoption.
Propositions should be supported with strong arguments
What is Pathos?
Emotional Appeals, Try to persuade people by appealing to their feelings.
What are the factors in persuasive communication?
Source credibility - Expertise, sincerity, and charisma
Appeal to self-interest
Clarity of message
Timing and context
Audience participation
Suggestions for action
Content and structure messages
Get people’s attention
What is propogand?
Falsehood, lies, deceit.
What are the uses of persuasion?
Change or neutralize hostile opinions. Crystallize latent opinions and positive attitudes. Conserve favorable opinions.
What are the limitations on effective persuasive messages?
Lack of message penetration, competing messages, self selection, self perception.
What is libel and defamation?
Defamation-false statement about a person that creates public hatred. Libel-falsehood or slander.
What is invasion of privacy?
Applies to employees of orgs. photo releases, product publicity, and media inquiries about employees.
What is the copyright law?
Protection of a creative work from unauthorized use. It provides an economic incentive for creative people to create original work
What is fair use?
Quote part of the copyrighted article or material (It depends on the length of the material)
Permission is required for advertising
Copyright issues on the internet?
Downloading of material and uploading, unauthorized.
Trademark Law?
Trademark – word, symbol, or slogan used to identify a product.TM is pending.
Regulations by GOVT. Agencies?
FTC, securities and exchange commission, FDA,
What is libel and defamation?
Defamation-false statement about a person that creates public hatred. Libel-falsehood or slander.
What is invasion of privacy?
Applies to employees of orgs. photo releases, product publicity, and media inquiries about employees.
What is the copyright law?
Protection of a creative work from unauthorized use. It provides an economic incentive for creative people to create original work
What is fair use?
Quote part of the copyrighted article or material (It depends on the length of the material)
Permission is required for advertising
Copyright issues on the internet?
Downloading of material and uploading, unauthorized.
Trademark Law?
Trademark – word, symbol, or slogan used to identify a product.TM is pending.
Regulations by GOVT. Agencies?
FTC, securities and exchange commission, FDA,
GOVT. Relations?
Relations between private organizations with government agencies. Practitioners monitor what government agencies do
Lobbyists?
They act for a special-interest group and try to influence the voting on the legislation or the decisions of government administrators. Defeat, passage, or amendment of proposed legislation and regulatory agency policies
Grassroots Lobbying?
Advocacy advertising, toll free phone lines, bulk faxing, websites, computerized direct mail.
Gillet Amendment?
Appropriated funds may not be used to pay a publicity expert unless specifically appropriated for that purpose.
Political action committees?
Created as a labor union mechanism in the 1930s.
Public affairs in govt?
Page 272.
Types of NP organizations?
Society is delegating public tasks to private groups
Tax-exempt organizations
Organized Regular meetings, rulesPrivate Separate from the government Nonprofit Do not attempt to generate profit for the owners or directors
Self-governing Board of directors Citizen involvement
Government has no control
Voluntary Group conducting its program
Fund-raising?
Money+Ethics=Good Rep.
The risks of fund-raising?
Adherence to high ethical standards of solicitation and close control of money-raising costs, so that expenses constitute only a reasonable percentage of the funds collected.
Types of fundraising?
Corporate and foundation donations, structured capital campaigns, direct mail, sponsorship of events, telephon solict. use of telephone numbers 800 or 900, commercial enterprises.