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35 Cards in this Set

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clone
a lineage of genetically identical individuals produced asexually
diploid
a cell containing two sets of homologous chromosomes
haploid
a cell, a nucleus, or an organism containing only one set of unpaired chromosomes (n)
homologous
of anatomical structures, sharing a common ancestor although the structure may look and function differently, such as bird's wing and a reptile's forelimb; of chromosomes, carrying the same genes
somatic
referring to the body of a plant or an animal aside from the gametes; relating to the nonreproductive cells of a multicellular organism
ovum
a mature egg cell; a female gamete, haploid (n) in chromosome number
meiosis
two successive cell divisions that produce gametes
spore
one-celled reproductive cell that is usually resistant to harsh environmental conditions and may remain dormant for long period
crossing-over
during prophase I of meiosis, the breakage and exchange of corresponding segments of homologous chromosomes at one or more sites along their length, resulting in genetic recombination
polar body
small haploid cell produced in meiosis during egg-cell formation
conjugation
a process of exchanging genetic information in which chromosomes pass between two bacteria by means of a tube of cytoplasm that temporarily connects them
alteration of generations
life cycle that includes both asexual and sexual forms; characteristic of plants, algae, and other life-forms
pollen
tiny grains that contain male gametes; released from the anthers of flowers
carpel
the female reproductive organ that consumes animals; a meat eater
ovaries
the primary reproductive organs of a female; egg-cell-producing organs
ovule
a structure that develops in a plant ovary and containing the egg
anther
the enlarged end of a stamen inf a flower, inside which pollen grains containing male gametes form
pollination
the placement of pollen by wind or animal onto the stigma of a carpel; a prerequisite to fertilization
external fertilization
the joining of gametes outside the bodies of the two parents, as in many fishes and amphibians
internal fertilization
the joining of gametes insidet he female's body
oviduct
in vertebrates, a tube that carries eggs away from an ovary; in humans, a fallopian tube
uterus
a hollow muscular organ, located in the female pelvis, in which a fetus develops
vagina
a tubular organ that leads from the uterus to the opening of the female reproductive tract
menstrual cycle
the femal reproductive cycle that is characterized by regularly recurring changes in the uterine lining
estrogen
family of hormones that stimulate the development of female secondary sexual characteristics
progesterone
a female hormone, secreted by the corpus luteum and the placenta, that prepares the uterus for pregnancy and the mammary glands for lactation
ovulation
the release of an egg cell from a mature ovarian follicle
corpus luteum
the structure that forms from the tissues of a ruptured ovarian follicle; secretes female hormones
gestation
pregnancy
scrotum
a pouch of skind that encloses the testes
androgen
family of male sex hormones, including testosterone
testosterone
a male sex hormone secreted by the testes
secondary sex characteristic
characteristic of a male or female animal other than gamete production; in humans, includes mature genitalia, female breasts, body and facial hair, muscualr development, and deep male voice; typically develops in response to sex hormones
puberty
the stage of development in which the reproductive organs become functional
in vitro
literally means "in glass"; refers to laboratory procedures done in test tubes or in petri dishes