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186 Cards in this Set

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Attended Installation
An attended installation consists of a user or an administrator acquiring the operating system from a CD/DVD or a shared network source and beginning the installation.
Unattended Installation
Makes use of special files called answer files and uniqueness database files to automate the installation of the operating system.
Another type uses a Remote Installation Services server that is installed and configured by the network administrator.
Upgrade Installation
An upgrade installation is performed on a computer that currently has a Windows O/S Teh purpose is to take advantage of new features and functionality that the newer o/s offers and user settings and doucments will be left intact.
Multiboot Installation
is performed on a computer that has Windows o/s installed. the purpose of multiboot install is to create other functional windows o/s on the same computer.
Minumum hardware specifications for Windows XP
* 233 Pentium/Celeron or AMD K6/Athlon/Duron
* 64 MB RAM
* 1.5 GB HD space
* SVGA (800x600)
* CD-ROM or DVD drive
* Keyboard & Mouse
Basic
Input
Output
System
is a set of software that tests hardware at startup, Starts the o/s and supports the transfer of data among hardware devices including Date and Time.
Drivers
Drivers are software that allow the hardware to comunicate with the o/s. Plug and Play will ask for the drivers at the end of the setup.
Low level Format
the only formatting on the hard disk from the factory.
Partition
Partitioning a hard drive is logically setting aside a portion of the disk.
Volume
a partition is sometimes referred to as a Volume, but a partition is limitied to one area on one phsyical disk, Whereas a volume can contain multipel partitions on the same disk or even on multiple disks.
The Three Critical partition types
Active partition
System partition
Boot partition
Active partition
Is the partition that contains the files required to boot the o/s.The active partition must always be on the 1st HD attached to the computer referred to as Disk 0
System partition
the partition that contains the bootstrap files that are required to display the boot menu and start the o/s.
Boot partition
is the partition that contains the windows system files. the folder is called \systemroot. the files are located in \systemroot\system32.
Bootstrap Files
Ntldr: this fiel is Hidden
ntdetect.com: this file is hidden
Boot.ini: this file is hidden
Bootsect.dos: This file is for dual configurations only.
Ntbootdd.sys: for system partitons located on SCSI drives only.
Format
formatting a partition places a file system on which files can be stored and managed.
File system Features
FAT
FAT32
NTFS
9x/ME/NT/2k/XP 4GB-Max 16-64KB Sector FAS*
98/ME/NT/2k/XP 32GB-Max low as 4KB Sector FAS*
NT/2k/XP 2TB-Max low as 4KB Sector FAS* +encrpyt +compress
(File Attribute Security*)
The Four Basic Steps of the install program
1 File Copy
2 Text Mode
3 GUI Mode
4 Windows Welcome
File Copy Phase
Windows setup files are copied to a temp folder on the aprtition where they can be run when you restart the systme.
Text Mode Phase
You Select the partition to use to install the o/s you should press F6 (Ntbootdd.sys)
GUI Mode Phase
you can select the regional settings language and time sone and enter details such as the product key, computer name and admin password.
Windows Welcome Phase
you can create user accounts and activate windows. Sometimes OEMs use this step to customize the installation.
Waht are the Installing Network Components choices?
Typical settings (DHCP)
or
Custom Settings (Static)
Windows Updates
1st o/s, 2nd network, 3rd Windows updates (choices are)
Notify
Download and notify
Autoupdate
Windows Product Activation (WPA)
Enter 25-character product key and Activate within 30 days of install, via internet or calling microsoft.
Cases where you may not need to activate XP o/s
1. Manufacturere of the computer has activated the software, (dont change the BIOS of the computer)
2. VLK Volume License Agreements (might not need a key)
Log Files created by Installation?
Location systemroot (Windows)
Setuplog.txt: Describes the task performed during setup.
Setupapi.log: Lists hardware and driver detection and installation issues.
Setuperr.log: Created if errors occur during setup.
Setupapt.log Records actions taken during setup.
PNPlog.txt: Lists PNP hardware and driver detection issues.
Performing unattended installation
can use the Setup Manager Wizard or text editor to create answer files and uniqueness database files (UDFs) or
RIS Remote Installation Services server
Answer files
is a text file that provides configuation settings that would otherwise be entered by the administrator during setup.
Answer files
divided into two parts,
The Section title (Userdata, Identification, Networking)
The Settings (Keys & Values)
Key=Value(Variable=Parameter)
eg. Computer Name=Sybex1
Uniqueness Database Files
Whenever more than one computer name is entered into answer file created by the Setup manager a uniqueness database file (UDF)named unattend.udb is AUTOMATICALLY created.
UDF is divided into two sections
what are they?
The first section is UniqueIDs
The second Setion is actual values.
In Most cases the UDF is used instead of answer filesfor the same computer.
The only time a value will be used from the answer file is when theres no value in the UDF.
Answer file UDF
Key&Value Not Key
Not Key Key&Value
Key&Value Key&Value
Not Key Key Not Value
Not Section/Key Key&Value
Result
Value in Answer File used
Value in UDF used
Value in UDF used
No Vaue set; user may be asked
Section/Key created by Setup
Remote Installation Services
allwos admins to deploy multiple computers.
The ONLY clients that can use RIS are 2k Pro and XP Pro
In order to use RIS a computer must have one of the following
A Net PC-compliant motherboard
A PXE enabled NIC installed
A Non-PXE NIC with special RIS boot disk.
To perform a network boot you press ...
<F-12>
Upgrade Advisor
used to test and create a report that you can examine for any inconsistencies to make sure that the upgrade install will go smoothly.
User State Migration Tool (USMT)
administrators use the USMT to distribute a user state to multiple computers. eg background, screen saver, font resolution, etc.
Located in \valueadd\msft\usmt
Scanstate
ScanState - scans a machine for user state and saves it to a temp store
LoadState
LoadState - create a user and apply state to its profile
Files and Settings Transfer Wizard (FAST)
Migrates files and settings from one computer to another,
Data Files only.
Can only be performed on computers that are NOT members of a domain.
Start->All Programs->Accessories->System Tools
Files and Settings Transfer Wizard (FAST) choices
Direct Cable - Serial
Floppy or other Removable
Other (removable or network drive)
Multiboot install can be performed if ...
you have a 32 bit o/s (9x or later) already installed and at least two partitions already defined. the system automagically changes the boot.ini file for you
when troubleshooting a multiboot install you should be aware of the following...
* The o/s should be installed lowest to highest
* Each o/s on its own partition
* Active partition contain Boot.ini
to change o/s selection and timeout you go to
System Properties->Advanced->Startup and Recovery
The four main types of resource access
File and folder
Shared folders
Printers
Offline files and folders
NTFS Permissions
___________ provide security for files and folders whether they are accessed by local logon or connected to through a network share.
Standard NTFS File Permissions Available
Read
Read & Execute
Write
Modify
Full Control
Standard NTFS Folder Permissions Available
List Folder Contents
Read
Read & Execute
Write
Modify
Full Control
If the security tab is not available how do you access it?
Tools->Folder Options->View->Uncheck Simple File Sharing
Using effective permission tool
right click file folder and security tab select advanced button in the advanced security settings dialog click effective permissions tab.
define NTFS inheritance
by default ntfs permsisions follow rules of inheritance.
True or False
A Deny permission will override an Allow permission.
True
unless parent folders conflict then parent folder closest to the resource has the correct permissions
Name the two major catagories of NTFS permissions
Standard
&
Special
When troubleshooting NTFS Permissions explain Access Token Generation
When an user logs on to a domain the DC examines the permissions assigned to the user and to the groups
The users access token is not changed until she loggs off and logs back on.
Define Creator Owner
When a user creates a file or folder, he becomes the Creator Owner of that file or folder. This means he has full control and nobody else has any permissions at all
The right to take ownership can be set where?
in the advanced security for each file and folder
The new owener must have the special permission of Take Ownership to be listed in the change owner to box.
where do you manage encrypted files?
You can manage the encryption of a file or folder using the Advanced button in the Gereal tab of its properties
discuss the two types of file sharing
Simple file sharing is enabled by default in XPHome. Not available on a domain. You cannot control NTFS Permissions directly.
Classic used in domains. Can control access to the resource by user/group
List the Share Folder Permissions
Read
Change
Full Control
what are the two categories of printer permissions
Allow
&
Deny
What ar the standard shared folder printer permissions
Print
Manage Documents
Manage Printers
Deny
how to install printer drivers only
APW->Server Properties->Drivers->install
Where is the print spooler folder located.
C:\windows\system32\spool\Printers
What are the three options available for Offline files and Folders
Manual Caching of Documents
Automatic Cacheing of Documents
Automatic Caching of pPrograms and Documents
what are the two categories of printer permissions
Allow
&
Deny
What ar the standard shared folder printer permissions
Print
Manage Documents
Manage Printers
Deny
how to install printer drivers only
APW->Server Properties->Drivers->install
Where is the print spooler folder located.
C:\windows\system32\spool\Printers
What are the three options available for Offline files and Folders
Manual Caching of Documents
Automatic Cacheing of Documents
Automatic Caching of pPrograms and Documents
Define Offline Synchronization
is the process of ensureing that shared folders and the offline copi3es of the folders have the same content.
What is a printer
a printer is actuall software that controls the print drivers that send the print job to the print device
Hardware devices can be divided into four catagories
Storage device
Display device
ACPI Advanced Connfiguration Power Interface
Input/Output I/O devices
What is a Storage device
any device that is installed in or connected to a computer for the purpose of storing data
What is a Display device
any device that produces visual output that a user can see and interpret.
What is Advanced Connfiguration Power Interface ACPI
is an open industry specification that defines a flexible method of controlling power to components on a system board
What is an Input/Output I/O device?
is any device that can send and receive data to and from a computer.
what are the two catagories of storage device?
Fixed Storage device
&
Removable Storage Device
What are the two catagories of Hard disk storage?
Basic disk
&
Dynamic disk
What limitations do Basic disks have?
* you can only have 24 logical divisions no matter how many drives you have or how much drive space you have.
How do volumes become Dynamic?
When we convert the disk to a dynameic disk using the Disk Management tool.
what benefits do dynamic disks have
name anything you want.
unlimited volumes
extend volumes (non system non boot)
configure special volumes (RAID5, Spanning, etc)
Name the five types of dynamic volumes you can con figure with dynamic disks?
Simple
Spanned
Striped
Mirrored
Raid5
name the three most common types of storage device errors
Startup errors
Stop errors
Dynamic disk errors
lost active partition or boot sector volume will give what startup error messages?
* Invalid partition table
* Missing operating system
* Error loading operating system
cannot locat and load the NT Loader will give what error messages?
* A disk read error occurred.
* NTLDR is missing.
* NTLDR is compressed.
what is a stope error
When windows detects an error from which it cannot recover. Also known as a BSOD blue screen of death
Name the five Dynamic disk errors
Foreign
Missing/Offline
Not Initialized
Online (errors)
Unreadable
What is a Dynamic disk status Foreign?
When you install a new disk of a disk from another computer
You can right-click the disk and then choose Import Foreign Disks.
What is a Dynamic disk status Missing/Offline?
This Status occurs whenever a dynamic disk becomes innaccessable.
Missing was recognized but cant find it now
Offline was not available on last startup
To bringa disk with a status of missing or offline back online you should do what?
1repair any HD controller or cable problems
2 in disk manager right-click the disk and then choose Reactivate Disk.
3 replace the disk and import the new foreign disk.
What is a Dynamic disk status Not Initialized?
The disk does not contain a valid signature in the MBR or a valid disk GUID Globally Unique Identification
What is a Dynamic disk status Online (errors)?
indicates that I/O errors have been detected on the disk. you may be able to repair the errors by right-clicking the disk and then choosing Reactivate Disk.
What is a Dynamic disk status Unreadable ?
When the system can see the disk but the disk is having errors that make it inaccessable.
Rescan the disk Open Disk Management tool choose Action and Rescan Disks.
If a Removable Storage Device is powered by a USB port what should you make sure of
make sure that the device has enough power to operate.
types of display devices
CRT Monitor
Flat-panel monitor
Multimonitor
Tablet PC
Smart displays
what are Smart displays?
Smart displays wireless touch-screen monitors that enable you to access your computer from anywhere within your wireless range.
how many monitors can Windows XP support?
ten 10
types of display settings
Background
Screen Savetr
Appearance
Screen Resolutiono
Color Depth
Themes
Refresh Rate
What is Directx Diagnostic used to check
a Diagnostic tool to test video, sounds, joystick control, communication.
how do you access Directx diagnostics?
start->run->msinfo32.exe->tools->directx

start->run->dxdiag
What is ACPI
Advanced Configuration Power Interface is an open industry specification that allows a manufacturer to develop hardware with power interfaces that can be controlled by software
What is a Power Scheme
a power scheme is a collection of power management sdsetting sthat allows a user to configure power management options for components.
What are the Power Scheme options?
Turn Off Monitor
Turno Off Hard Disks
System Standby
System Hibernates
What are the power tab options
power schemes
alarms
power meter
advanced
hibernate
list four common ACPI related problems
* An inablility to shut down the computer
* Standby and Hibernate options not being available
* Problems resuming fomr standby or hibernation
* Monitor not resuming after being powered off by ACPI
What are I/O Devices?
I/O devices provide for communication to and from a computer.
Types of I/O devices
Serial devices
Parallel devices
Universal Serial Bus
IEEE 1394(Firewire)
Modems
Infared Devices
Radio frequency ID
how do I isolate the I/O problems?
* check power cables
* check for pwoer and connect lights
* check the device is compatible with XP
* verify correct drivers
* for IR make sure within range no bright sunlight.
* for RF make sure no other RF within range blocking or interrupting.
what is a driver
a driver is a software program that allows HW to talk to the OS. Every device requires a driver.
what options does XP give you in regard to driver signing.
* Ignore install without warning
* Warn install after warning
* Block to prevent installin gunsigned drivers
what can you use to verify file signatures
File Signature Verification Tool
start->run->sigverif.exe
log file at c:\windows\sigverif.log
Name the six catagories of resource configuration and troublshooting
User environment
Multiple languages or multiple locations
Security settings and local security policy
Local user and group accounts
System startup and user logon
System performance
Describe the user environment resource configuration settings
includes task and toolbar settings, accessibility options, pointing device settings, and fast user switching.
Describe the Multiple languages or multiple locations resource configurations and settings
Thre distinct variations
English
Localized
Multiilanguage User Interface (MUI)
Describe Security settings and local security policy resource configurations and settings
Computers in a workgroup each computer controls its own security
In a domain network security and group policy
Describe System startup and user logon process
when a user starts a computer and logs on to the computer locally a process of authentication and validation takes place.
Describe System performance resources.
There are four essential resources in most computers
processor
memory
disk subsystem
network subsystem
use Task Man & Perf Mon to configure
What is the Taskbar
The taskbar holds icons indicating programs that a user is currently using. It can hold the clock and notification area.
How do I access the accessibility options
Start->Control Panel-> Accessibility Options->Accessibility Options
How do I access the accessibility features
Start->All Programs-> Accessories->Accessibility Menu
What do I access in the accessibility options
Keyboard:StickyKeys,FilterKeys,ToggleKeys
Sound:SoundSentry,ShowSounds
Display:High Contrast, Cursor Options
Mouse:MouseKeys
General Settings:Automatic Reset, Notifications, SerialKey Devices, Administrative options
Describe System performance resources.
There are four essential resources in most computers
processor
memory
disk subsystem
network subsystem
use Task Man & Perf Mon to configure
What is the Taskbar
The taskbar holds icons indicating programs that a user is currently using. It can hold the clock and notification area.
How do I access the accessibility options
Start->Control Panel-> Accessibility Options->Accessibility Options
How do I access the accessibility features
Start->All Programs-> Accessories->Accessibility Menu
What do I access in the accessibility options
Keyboard:StickyKeys,FilterKeys,ToggleKeys
Sound:SoundSentry,ShowSounds
Display:High Contrast, Cursor Options
Mouse:MouseKeys
General Settings:Automatic Reset, Notifications, SerialKey Devices, Administrative options
What do I access in the accessibility features
Accessibility Wizard
Magnifier
Narrator
On-Screen Keyboard
Utility Manager
When cant we use fast user switching
Fast user Switching is not available when a computer is a memeor of a domain or when a computer is configured for Offline Files and Folders
referring to Multipel Languages of Locations what is Localization?
Localization regers to the language that is displayed by the operating system itself on the Start menu, Taskbar, and Help screens. There are 24 versions
how do i extend the speech & handwriting recognition to the notepad program?
Start->Control panel->Date/time/regional Options->regional language Options->Language->Details->Advanced->Compatibility configuration Check expand support of advanced text services to all programs eg. speech & handwriting recognition
Security policies can be used to configure what
* Who accesses the computer
* Which resources Users are authorized to use
* Whether user or group actions are recorded in an event log
What are the Local Security Settings configurations
* Account Policies
* Local Policies
* Public Key Policies
* Software Restriction Policies
* IP Security Policies On Local Computer
What are the Local Security Settings->Account Policies
Define
Password restrictions
Account lockout
What are the Local Security Settings->Local Policies
Define
Audit Policy,
User Rights assignments
Security Options
What are the Local Security Settings->Public Key Policies
Define the
Certificates
Recovery Agents
What are the Local Security Settings->Software Restriction Policies
Define whether a user is prevented from installing a specified software on the computer
What are the Local Security Settings->IP Security Policies On Local Computer
Define how and when your computer will communicate with other computers on teh network. eg. encryption & authentication.
What are group Policies
Group Policies are groups of policies that are used to manage users and computers in sites domains & Org Units(OUs)
If there are confilicts on policies that are run which policy will win (be the effective settings)
The Last setting with be the effective settings
Which policies run first and which runs last
1 Local computer policy
2 Site policy
3 Domain policy
4 Organizational Unit policy
5 Child organizational Unit Policy
What is the RSOP
The Resultant Set of Policies group of security settings that ends up taking precedence (effective settings)
What is gpresult
the tool examines the policies that apply to the computer and the currently logged-on user
What is a SID
Each user account is assigned a Security I
Dentifier(SID) by th eOS it is always unique and is never reused. Windows uses the SID to control a users access to resources based on pwermissions assighned to the user or group
What are the different types of user accounts
Administrator
System
Guest
Local
Domain
Waht are the Windows XP built in groups
Administrators
Backup Operators
Guests
Network Configuration Operators
Power Users
Remote Desktop Users
Replicator
Users
Help Services Group
When a user tries to start a computer problems can occur in the following sections
System Startup
User logon to a computer
User Logon to a domain
The five major phases of the boot sequence
Pre-boot
Boot
Kernel Load
Kernel Initialization
Logon
When a user logs on to a computer
the user provides credential and the computer checks the SAM Security Accounts Manager Database. The user receives an access token and is permitted to logon to the computer.
When a user logs on to a Domain
if the credential provided match those of an account in the Active Directory Database then the domain controller provides the usr righs and group membership to the LSA of the computer which the creates the access token.
if the domain controller cannot be located the how can you login
the user may be allowed to log on with cached credentials.
Name four resources that affect your computer performance
Processor
Memory
Disk subsystem
Network subsystem
Where are the perf Mon tools located
Help and Support
Task Manager
Windows Performance tools
What tabs are located on Task Manager
Application
Processes
Performance
Networking
Users
What tools are included in Windows performance
System Monitor
Performance Logs and alerts
What is one of the most common logon mistakes
accidentally attempting to log on locally to a computer with a domain user account becasue of an incorrect logon setting.
What are two main tools to test for connectivity ?
What are ping and pathping
What does the ping tool do?
The ping tool creates Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)you send packets to a specific address which then sends them back.
What does the pathping tool do?
to test connectivity between computers sends back information about each of the hops that the packets take towards their destination address and calculates sent and lost over a 25 second period of time.
What is a NetBIOS Name ?
a computer name up to 15 characters in length
What does ARP do
Convert ip addresses to MAC addresses
What is a LMhost file
a text file that converts known NetBIOS names to IP addresses.
Where is the LMhost file located
c:\windows\system32\etc\drivers
Where is the hosts file located
c:\windows\system32\etc\drivers
What is a hostname?
a computer name used to describe a machine in a LAN and WAN (unlike Netbios LAN only)
What converts hostnames to IP addresses
Domain Name Service (DNS) servers translate IP to hostnames.
IPconfig switches
/all
/release
/renew
/flushdns
/registerdns
Three primay ping errors
request time out
destination host unreachable
unknown host hostname
what does destination host unreachable mean?
there is a routing level problem
what does unknown host hostname mean?
none of the name resolution mechanisms recognize that hostname.
what does request time out mean?
the name resolution mechanism recognzed the name but the target did not receive or respond to the request.
What is nslookup
command line tool used to translate a computer name to an ip address Manually.
What is the net command?
used to view the network settings assigned to a computrer
Whst is the NBTStat command
used to manager netbios named information and display stats for current tcp/ip connection
nbtstat command switches
nbtstat -n list all netbios names registerd by a client

nbtstat -c list netbisoname cache

nbtstat -R Manually reload netbios name cach w special entry from LMHost file
What is a VPN
Virtual Private Networking Low cost secure private networking
What are the two types of VPNs
Network-network - used from one office to another office
Host-network - remote from home or hotel
What are the requirements for Remote Desktop
*Must be running XP Pro
*remote computer must have Remote Desktop enabled.
*client must have RDC client SW installed 95 2000 etc
*only one connection (local or remote)
what are the default Full control level users and groups in remote desktop
*Current logon account
*Local Administrators group
*Remote Desktop Users group
RDC over the internet requires
a computer w internet access
TCP port 3389 must be open
What is a VPN
Virtual Private Networking Low cost secure private networking
What are the two types of VPNs
Network-network - used from one office to another office
Host-network - remote from home or hotel
What are the requirements for Remote Desktop
*Must be running XP Pro
*remote computer must have Remote Desktop enabled.
*client must have RDC client SW installed 95 2000 etc
*only one connection (local or remote)
what are the default Full control level users and groups in remote desktop
*Current logon account
*Local Administrators group
*Remote Desktop Users group
RDC over the internet requires
a computer w internet access
TCP port 3389 must be open
at least a valid IP address
Remote Assistance requirements
XP Home or Pro
default settings are enabled
port 3389 be open
NAT requires pre-configuration