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226 Cards in this Set

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World History Set 2-2
Rise of Authoritarian Dictators & WWII
Shattered a sense of optimism which had grown in the West since the Enlightenment.
World War I
New technologies connected people around the world and created a ________ shared by the World's developed countries.
mass culture
African Americans combined Western harmonies with African rhythms to create____.
Jazz
Another name for the "Roaring Twenties" in the U.S.
Jazz Age
During the 1920s many young people who had been disillusioned by the war rejected the moral values of the __________.
Victorian Age
Symbol of the rebellious Jazz Age youth.
flapper
Nickname given to young women of the 1920s who defied convention and broke norms.
flapper
New technologies and attitudes of the 1920s allowed some women to be emancipated from traditional roles and to pursue ________.
careers
The fact that many people opposed the freer lifestyle of the Jazz age was demonstrated by _______.
Prohibition
Outlawed the production and sale of alcohol in the U.S.
Prohibition (18th Amendment)
Caused an explosion of organized crime in the U.S.
Prohibition
Illegal bars.
Speakeasies
Christian movement in the U.S. in the 1900s which stressed a more literal interpretation of the bible.
fundamentalism
Brought national attention to the theory and teaching of evolution.
Scopes Trial
Young adults in Europe and America in general, and writers in particular, who had become disillusioned with the world and Western values after World War I.
the Lost Generation
Cultural movement where African American artists and writers explored and expressed pride in their unique culture.
Harlem Renaissance
Her findings and the findings of others proved that atoms were not solid and indivisible.
Marie Curie
Measurements of space and time are not absolute but are determined by the relative position of the observer.
Theory of Relativity
Developed the theory of relativity.
Albert Einstein
Discovered that atoms could be split.
Enrico Fermi
His discovery of penicillin paved the way for the development of antibiotics to treat infections.
Alexander Fleming
View that the subconscious mind drives much of behavior.
Psychoanalysis
Founder of Psychoanalysis.
Sigmund Freud
Abstract, dada, & surrealism were all artistic movements which broke from traditional styles and an effort to __________.
reproduce the real world
Attempted to portray the workings of the unconscious mind.
surrealism
Largely responsible for the rise of authoritarian dictators in Europe following WWI.
failures of the Versailles Treaty
Had to deal with growing socialism and the Irish question after WWI.
Great Britain
In 1922 it was divided into two parts; the largest part became an independent state, but the Northern part remained under English rule.
Ireland
Fought a guerrilla war against the British before 1922 and continued to fight for Irish unification after 1922.
Irish Republican Army
After WWI political parties here competed for power causing many changes in government.
France
In the U.S. fear of radicals and the Bolshevik Revolution resulted in police rounding up suspected foreign-born radicals, and expelling a number from the country.
Red Scare
French Fortifications against Germany.
Maginot Line
In 1925 Germany and France promised they would never again make war against each other
Locarno Pact
Almost every nation of the world agreed to renounce war as an instrument of national policy
Kellogg-Briand peace pact
The Kellogg-Briand peace pact was NOT ____
enforceable
Attempts at making and ensuring peace among European nations in the 1920s. (including the Kellogg-Briand peace pact)
Spirit of Locarno
In the spirit of Locarno the great powers pursued _______.
disarmament
It was unable to stop aggression, a weakness noted by dictators.
League of Nations
Owed huge war debts to the U.S. after World War I.
Britain & France
In Great Britain in 1926 over three million workers went on a ________.
general strike
Enjoyed an economic boom in the 1920s.
U.S.
Overproduction and a crisis in finance in the U.S. led to the _______.
Stock Market Crash
Triggered a depression in the U.S. that spread world wide
Stock Market Crash
Programs introduced by Franklin Roosevelt in an attempt to end the Great Depression.
New Deal
Created a fertile ground for extremists who promised radical solutions.
Great Depression
Caused many people to lose faith in democracy.
Great Depression
First European country to become fascist.
Italy
Fascist dictator of Italy.
Benito Mussolini
Believed workers of all countries should unite in a class struggle
communists
Feared high inflation and or high unemployment might lead to a communist revolution
middle and upper class
Have the most to lose in a communist revolution
middle and upper class
Middle and upper classes supported Mussolini because they feared a ______-
communist revolution
Won support in Italy by attacking communists
Benito Mussolini
Nickname for Mussolini's private troops he used to take power in Italy
Black shirts
Mussolini and his Black shirts marched on Rome in _______ (year)
1922
When Mussolini marched on Rome the Italian King asked him to form a government as ______.
Prime Minister
After Mussolini was named Prime Minister he used secret police and propaganda to ______-
eliminate all opposition
Extreme Nationalism, State supremacy, one party rule, retention of private property
Fascism
Want a planned economy with private ownership of the means of production
Fascists
Want a planned economy with public ownership of the means of production
Communists
Want to maintain the class system with an authoritarian government
Fascists
Want to do away with the class system with an authoritarian government.
Communists
Fascists believed the state should have an ______ leader
authoritarian
Both Fascists and Communists believe in
Dictatorial one-party rule
Under Fascism and Communism opposition was _____-
outlawed'
In Mussolini's new system loyalty to the state replaced ______.
individual goals
Mussolini brought the economy under state control but preserved _____.
capitalism
Mussolini's fascist government was the first _________.
totalitarian state
A one-party dictatorship attempts to control every aspect of citizens' lives.
totalitarian state
Under Joseph Stalin, the Soviet Union developed into a _________.
totalitarian state
In the Soviet Union the government made most economic decisions.
command economy
Stalin wanted all peasants to farm on state owned farms.
collectives
Because farmers resisted collectivization Stalin seized all their grain and left peasants to starve.
Terror Famine
Fearing rival party leaders were plotting against him Stalin launched the _________.
Great Purge
Resulted in the killing or imprisonment of at least four million people in the Soviet Union.
Great Purge
Stalin's attempt to make non-Russian cultures in the Soviet Union more Russian.
russification
The communist party in Russia attempted to destroy the religious faith of the people to reinforce the official communist belief of ____.
atheism
Soviet leaders had two conflicting _________.
foreign policy goals
Soviets worked to spread worldwide communist revolution through the _______.
Comintern
At the same time they supported worldwide communist revolution the Soviets also wanted to strengthen their national security through the ______.
support of other countries
Did not completely destroy Germany but created a motive for revenge.
Versailles Treaty
Germany's solution to war reparations following WWI.
Printing money
Just printing money resulted in extremely high _______.
inflation
Economic problem in Germany from 1918-23.
inflation
Democratic Government set up in Germany after WWI.
Weimar Republic
Became a scapegoat for Germany's problems after WWI.
Weimar Republic
Germans blamed the Weimar Republic for their __________.
defeat in World War I
Was doomed to failure by the harshness of the Versailles Treaty.
Weimar Republic
Came out of WWI stronger than before. (countries)
U.S. & Japan
World War I resulted in the rise of unstable _________.
democracies
When difficulties arise people are often willing to sacrifice democracy in exchange for _________.
strong leadership
Avoiding political ties to other countries.
isolationism
After World War I Americans became ____.
isolationists
By the autumn of 1923 it was worthless
German Mark (unit of currency)
Enabled Germany to recover from its tremendous inflation
Dawes Plan
$200 million loan from American banks to stabilize German economy.
Dawes Plan
National Socialist German Worker's Party
Nazi
Became the fuehrer (leader) of the Nazi Party.
Adolf Hitler
Attempted a coup in Munich in 1923
Adolf Hitler
After the attempted coup in 1923 Hitler was
Imprisoned
While in prison Hitler wrote ______-
Mein Kampf
Set forth Hitler's objectives for Germany
Mein Kampf
Nazism was a form of ______
Fascism
Lost popularity during the prosperity of the 1920s
Nazis
Results in both Communists and Nazis gaining popularity in the 1930s
Great Depression
Because of the depression Germans began to feel they had to choose between _______
Communism and Nazism
Nazi private army
Storm Troopers
Engaged in terrorism to help the Nazis come to power
Storm Troopers
Nickname for the Nazi Storm Troopers
Brown Shirts
German initials for Storm Troopers
SA
Industrialists, upper class and the middle class backed Hitler because they feared they might lose everything to a ______
communist revolution
Ruling body under the Weimar Republic.
Reichstag
In 1933 President Hindenburg named Hitler
Chancellor
As Chancellor Hitler called for new______
Reichstag elections
Enabled the Nazis and their allies to win a majority of seats in the Reichstag.
Reichstag Fire
The Nazis blamed the Reichstag fire on the _____
Communists
After gaining a two-third majority the Nazi's passed the ______-
Enabling Act
The Enabling Act made Hitler the ______
Dictator of Germany
Dreaded elite corps of Nazi Germany
SS
Hitler's secret police.
Gestapo
Used by Hitler to eliminate opposition
Gestapo
The Gestapo was part of the ______
SS
Nickname for the SS
Black shirts
Head of the SS and the Gestapo
Heinrich Himmler
Nazi propaganda chief
Joseph Goebbels
Deprived Jews of German citizenship and political rights (1935)
Nuremburg Laws
Individuals are subordinate to the state but private property is retained
Fascism
German Fascism
Nazism
Fear of communism, resentment of Jews, resentment of the Treaty of Versailles, and the depression, helped _________
Hitler rise
Fascists generally believe in a superior____
race
Won support by offering simple solutions to complex problems
Dictators
Hoped to solve their nation's economic problems by building a Pacific empire
Japanese Militarists
In 1937 Japan went to war against ______
China
In 1936 Italy conquered
Ethiopia
Making concessions to avoid war.
Appeasement
When Hitler first began to violate the Treaty of Versailles, Britain and France followed a policy of _______.
Appeasement
Hitler began to violate it provisions step by step.
Versailles Treaty
First violation of the Versailles Treaty.
German Rearmament
After Hitler rearmed his second violation of the Versailles Treaty was to occupy the demilitarized zone of the _______.
Rhineland
Hitler annexed Austria with _______.
no resistance
Britain & France give up the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia to maintain peace.
Munich Pact
Germany, Italy, and Japan (1936)
Axis Powers
Led revolt against the elected government in Spain.
Francisco Franco
Used German and Italian troops against Spain's Republican army.
Francisco Franco
During Spain's civil war western democracies _____.
remained neutral
The government established by Franco in Spain was _______.
Fascist
British Prime Minister famous for appeasement.
Neville Chamberlain
Hitler violated the Munich Pact by taking ____.
all of Czechoslovakia
Signed a non-aggression pact with Germany in 1939. (shocked the world)
Soviet Union
Planned to divide Eastern Europe between them.
Hitler and Stalin
World War II started when Germany _____.
invaded Poland
Date of the beginning of World War II.
1939
German "lightning war"
Blitzkrieg
Quick surprise strikes by tanks supported by airplanes.
Blitzkrieg
After Hitler invaded Poland, Britain and France __________.
declared war on Germany
Followed Britain and France declaring war on Germany.
Phony War
No fighting on land between the Allies and Germany.
Phony War
Those who fought against the Axis Powers.
Allies
Hitler's armies simply went around it from the North.
Maginot Line
Hitler used the Blitzkrieg to overrun this country in about a month in 1940.
France
British rescued 300,000 troops out of France at this port.
Dunkirk
Succeeded Neville Chamberlain as Britain's Prime Minister.
Winston Churchill
Hitler wanted to crush this country's air force to prepare to invade it.
Britain
The British RAF defeated the German Luftwaffe.
Battle of Britain
New technology used by Britain in the Battle of Britain.
Radar
German Air Force.
Luftwaffe
RAF
Royal Air Force
Commander of the Luftwaffe
Herman Goering
Prevented a German invasion of Britain.
Battle of Britain
Head of the Soviet Union during WWII.
Joseph Stalin
After Hitler was unable to invade Britain he broke his non-aggression pact and invaded ____.
the Soviet Union
Ripped through the Soviet Union at first.
Blitzkrieg
Allowed Roosevelt to send war supplies to any country whose defense was vital to the U.S.
Lend-lease Act
U.S. President during World War II.
Franklin Roosevelt
Official leader of Japan during World War II.
Emperor Hirohito
Dominated Japan prior to and during World War II.
Militarists
Proposed Japanese Empire. (name)
Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere
Japan went to war to obtain an empire for ______.
raw materials
Brought the U.S. into World War II.
Bombing of Pearl Harbor
Planned and executed the attack on Pearl Harbor.
Admiral Yamamoto
The U.S. entered World War II in ________. (year)
1941
Critical new naval weapon of WWII.
Aircraft Carrier
Turning point in the Pacific War.
Battle of Midway
Commander of the American Pacific fleet directed the victory at the Battle of Midway.
Admiral Nimitz
The Selective Service Act in 1940 was the first U.S. _________.
peacetime draft
Main cause of the loss of civilian lives.
bombing by airplanes
Hitler's plan to murder all the Jews.
"Final Solution"
Wartime hysteria in the U.S. resulted in the _____.
internment of Japanese Americans
Nazi destruction of the Jews. (6 million killed)
Holocaust
Nazis sent Jews and political opponents to ____.
Concentration camps
Nazis forced Jews, poles, & Soviet Slavs to work as _____.
slave labor
Hitler believed they were a master race.
Aryans
Carried out Hitler's policy of exterminating the Jews.
SS
Americans and British troops first fought together in ______. (place)
North Africa
From North Africa the Allies attacked ______. (in 1943)
Sicily and Italy
Desert Fox, German General who at first had great success against the Allies in North Africa, eventually his army was driven back and forced to surrender.
Erwin Rommel
Beginning of the end of the war in Europe.
Invasion of Normandy
The Allied invasion of France forced Hitler to fight a war on _____.
two fronts
Beginning of the invasion of Normandy.
D-Day
Year of D-Day.
1944
Commanding General of the invasion of Normandy.
Dwight Eisenhower
Wanted the U.S. & Britain to open a second front in France. (person)
Joseph Stalin
Turning point of the war in the Soviet Union.
Battle of Stalingrad
Defeated Germany in Russia. (a major factor)
Russian Winter
Soviets and Americans met in Germany at the _______.
River Elbe
Hitler commits suicide, Germany surrenders.
V.E. Day
Roosevelt, Churchill, & Stalin met to plan the end of the war.
Yalta Conference
Strategy to defeat Japan in the Pacific.
Island hopping
U.S. policy of leap frogging over Islands that were well fortified by the Japanese and attacking less fortified islands that strategically enabled the U.S. to move toward Japan.
Island hopping
With the use of blockades islands which were leap frogged were left to _____.
"wither on the vine"
Truman ordered the dropping of the Atomic Bomb to avoid _______.
invading Japan
Two cities hit by nuclear bombs (in order)
Hiroshima & Nagasaki
World War II ended in _______. (year)
1945
The number of deaths in World War II was as many as ________.
50 million
Created at the end of World War II to keep the peace.
United Nations
Nazis tried for war crimes.
Nuremburg Trials
World Powers after World War II.
U.S. and U.S.S.R.
As soon as World War II was ended distrust and different philosophies led to the _____.
Cold War
Tension between the U.S. and the Soviet Union from 1946 to 1990.
Cold War
Stalin's threat to Greece and Turkey after the war resulted in the _____.
Truman Doctrine
Policy that the U.S. would resist the spread of Communism throughout the world.
Truman Doctrine
To strengthen democracies, the U.S. offered food and economic aid to Europe.
Marshall Plan
Forced the Soviets to end their blockade of West Berlin.
Allied Airlift
New alliance formed by the U.S. and nine other countries in 1949.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
The Soviet Counter to NATO.
Warsaw Pact