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115 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Many wars and conflicts have arisen over _______.
ethnic or religious differences.
Religious and ethnic differences have often led to _______.
civil wars
A war between the people of the same country.
civil war
Though they have great religious and ethnic diversity they have avoided internal conflict because they have distributed economic and political power among various groups. (2 Southeast Asian nations)
Malaysia and Singapore
Conflicts occur because one religious or ethnic group believes it is being ________.
discriminated against by another group.
Were excluded from power by the Sinhalese Buddhists.
Hindu Tamils
Rebelled against the Sinhalese Buddhists in Sri Lanka
Hindu Tamils
Would not agree to a ceasefire until 2002 when the Sri Lanka government agreed to negotiations for a separate ______________.
Tamil regional government
Felt they were mistreated by the English speaking majority in Canada.
French speaking people in Quebec
French speaking people in Quebec were able to get support for their language and culture through ____.
democratic means
Won independence from Great Britain in 1922.
Ireland
Six northern counties which remained apart of Great Britain and had a protestant majority.
Northern Ireland
Faced economic and political discrimination in Northern Ireland.
Catholics
The majority faith in the Republic of Ireland.
Catholic
The Catholics in Northern Ireland wanted Northern Ireland unified with the __________.
Republic of Ireland.
Attacked Protestants in Northern Ireland and engaged in terrorism against Britain.
Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Attacked Catholics in Northern Ireland.
Protestant militia
Protestants and Catholics signed a peace accord in Ireland in 1998.
Good Friday Agreement
Even after the Good Friday Agreement there were still episodes of violence in ______.
Northern Ireland
In several former Soviet Republics ethnic minorities fought for freedom from ______.
domination by the republics' majority
Chechen Muslims fought to free Chechnya from ____.
Russia
In the mid-1990s Russia brutally crushed a _______.
Chechen revolt
In 1999 when new fighting erupted Russian troops won control of Grozny the _____.
Capital of Chechnya
When some Chechens turned to terrorist attacks elsewhere in Russia, Russians claimed the Chechens rebels were linked to _____.
Muslim terrorists in other parts of the world.
In the 1990s Yugoslavia was torn apart by _______.
ethnic, nationalist, & religious tensions.
Serbs, Montenegrins, Macedonians, Croats, Slovenes, Bosniaks and Albanians made up the ethnic groups of ___.
Yugoslavia
Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Macedonia were the _______.
six republics of Yugoslavia before 1991
Prior to 1991 Yugoslavia was held together by the communist party dominated by _____.
Serbia
Serbs were the majority in Serbia but were minorities in the other ___.
Yugoslav republics
Tried in vane to control Yugoslavia after the fall of communism.
Serbians
After Croatia and Slovenia declared independence from Yugoslavia in 1991 fighting broke out in Croatia between _______.
Croats and Serbs
By 1992 Macedonia & Bosnia had declared independence from ________.
Yugoslavia
In 2003 Yugoslavia was renamed _____.
Serbia & Montenegro
When Bosnia declared independence the Bosnia Serbs fought to set up their own ________.
government in Bosnia
Bosnia Serbs received money & arms from ______.
Serbs in Yugoslavia
Fought the Serbs in Bosnia.
Muslim Bosniaks
Bosnia Serbs engaged in vicious attacks against the Bosniaks called ____.
ethnic cleansing
Attempts to kill or remove other ethnics to create ethnically "pure" areas.
ethnic cleansing
Croats attempted it against the Serbs in Croatia.
ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing sometimes resulted in ______.
mass executions
The Bosnian Serbs and the other warring parties were forced to negotiate by ______.
NATO air strikes
Ended the war in Bosnia in 1995.
Dayton Accords
Serbian province that was 90% Albanian.
Kosovo
Serbian President who in 1989 began oppressing Kosovar Albanians.
Slobodan Milosevic
After peaceful protests led to greater repression Albanian guerrillas from Kosovo began in the mid-1990s to attack _____.
Serbian targets
In 1999, NATO launched strikes against _______.
Serbia
In Kosovo the Yugoslavian/Serbian military attempted it against the Albanians.
ethnic cleansing
Forced Yugoslavia to withdraw its forces from Kosovo.
NATO air strikes
Restored the peace in Kosovo.
U.N. & NATO forces
Although Kosovo remained a part of Serbia in theory after 1999 it was under the control of the ___.
UN
When South Africa won independence in 1910, freedom was limited to the minority ________.
White settlers
Expanded system of racial segregation in South Africa began in 1948.
Apartheid
The main organization that opposed apartheid and led the struggle for majority rule. Outlawed in 1960.
African National Congress (ANC)
In 1960 police gunned down 69 men, women, and children during a peaceful demonstration in a black township in South Africa
Sharpeville Massacre
Pushed the ANC to shift from nonviolent protest to armed struggle.
Sharpeville Massacre
At first organized young South Africans to peacefully resist apartheid laws.
Nelson Mandela
As government violence grew he joined militants who called for armed struggle.
Nelson Mandela
ANC leader.
Nelson Mandela
Arrested, tried and condemned to life in prison for treason against apartheid.
Nelson Mandela
Even in prison he was a powerful leader and symbol in the struggle for freedom in South Africa.
Nelson Mandela
In 1984 a South African bishop who won the Nobel Peace Prize for nonviolent opposition to apartheid.
Desmond Tutu
South African president pressured to end apartheid.
F.W. de Klerk
Lifted the ban on the ANC. (1990)
F.W. de Klerk
Pressured to free Nelson Mandela (1990)
F.W. de Klerk
In 1994 becomes the country's first true president of a democratic South Africa.
Nelson Mandela
Since gaining independence from Belgium, in 1962, the central African countries of Rwanda and Burundi have been dominated by the conflict between the _________.
Tutsis & Hutus
In 1994 when a plane carrying the Hutu presidents of Rwanda & Burundi was shot down Hutu extremists urged civilians to _____.
kill their Tutsi & moderate Hutu neighbors
In the 1994 massacre in Rwanda about ______.
800,000 Tutsi and moderate Hutus were killed.
After Tutsi rebels win control in Rwanda in 1994 about 1 million Hutus fearful of revenge became ______.
refugees in Zaire & Tanzania
North eastern country in Africa, that has an Arab Muslim north dominating a non-Muslim, non-Arab south.
Sudan
Ethnic conflict causes civil war between the Islamic government and the non-Muslim rebels. (Northeastern African country)
Sudan
Sudan's western region
Darfur
Area in Sudan where the government backed Arab militias unleashed terror on non-Arab Muslim people.
Darfur
African nation won independence in 1975 but because its new government favored the Soviet Union, the U.S. aided the rebel groups fighting the new government.
Angola
Land Arabs lost to Israel through several wars
occupied territories
Palestine Liberation Organization
PLO
Organization leading the Palestinian fight against Israel
PLO
Head of the PLO (for most of its existence)
Yasir Arafat
Palestinian revolts in occupied territories
intifadas
The PLO often used this to attack the Israelis
terrorism
Israel responded to PLO actions with a strong ______.
armed forces
Palestinian _____ increased with each Israeli attack.
bitterness
First female Prime Minister of Israel
Golda Meir
Arab nations attacked Israel in _____(Year) when Golda Meir was trying to negotiate peace
1973
Israel returned this region to Egypt in a 1979 peace accord
Sinai Peninsula
Signed in 1993 after direct talks between Israel and the PLO
Oslo Accord
Hopes for peace in the Israeli region, center on ending this
cycle of violence and retaliation
outlined a plan proposing Palestinian self-rule in Gaza and the West Bank in exchange for an end to terrorism
Oslo Accord
Israeli Prime Minister pushing for peace in the 1990s and assassinated for signing the Oslo Accord
Yitzhak Rabin
An example of radical Palestinian groups who increased terrorist attacks on Israel after many years of little progress following the Oslo accord
Hamas
U.S. devised plan involving potential withdrawal of Israelis from Gaza
"Road Map to Peace"
released hundreds of Palestinian prisoners after the death of Yasir Arafat and new pledges from successor Mahmoud Abbas to end attacks
Ariel Sharon
Three obstacles to peace between Arabs and Israelis
original Palestinian land, Israeli settlements in occupied territories, and Jerusalem
City sacred to Jews, Muslims and Christians, capital of Israel
Jerusalem
Arab-Israeli conflict spilled over into this neighboring nation by the 1970s
Lebanon
Largest and most powerful group in Lebanon when independence was attained.
Arab Christians
outnumbered Christians in Lebanon and demanded a greater share of power after Palestinians fled into Lebanon from regions that became Israel
Muslims
Civil war from 1975 to1990 destroyed this commercial center and allowed an Israeli invasion in the South and Syrian occupation in the East.
Lebanon
Long history of internal and external conflicts due to oil wealth and ethnic diversity. (Middle East Country)
Iraq
After WW II Iraq's monarchy had close ties to the _______.
United States
After the 1958 overthrow of their monarchy, Iraq's rulers developed closer ties with the _______.
Soviet Union
This minority group dominated the political power of Iraq until the country's free elections in 2005
Sunni Arabs
Iraq's government responded brutally to this groups fight for control of northern Iraq
Kurds
seized power in Iraq in 1979 and ruled as a dictator until his regime was overthrown by Coalition forces in 2003
Saddam Hussein
Took advantage of political turmoil in Iran after that nation's Islamic revolution, seizing disputed border regions between Iran and Iraq. (person)
Saddam Hussein
Won U.S. support during their prolonged war with Iran in the 1980s mainly because of Iran's bitter opposition to the U.S.
Iraq
During the Iran-Iraq war Hussein used chemical weapons, killing thousands of civilians in ______ villages
Kurdish
Iraq's 1990 invasion of this oil-rich nation motivated the U.S. to lead coalition forces in a counterattack in 1991
Kuwait
Under the UN banner, U.S. led forces quickly liberated Kuwait from Iraqi forces in this 1991 conflict.
The Gulf War
Used torture, terror and execution to maintain control of Shiites and Kurds in Iraq
Saddam Hussein
Biological, nuclear and chemical weapons
weapons of mass destruction
Repeatedly violated no-fly zones and failed to cooperate with UN weapons inspectors.
Iraq
U.S. and British coalition forces topple Hussein and begin occupation of Iraq in ______. (year)
2003
In 2005 free elections, this majority group won control of the government for the first time in Iraq's history.
Shiites
Efforts to rebuild Iraq are hampered by these rebels targeting foreigners or Iraqi's cooperating with foreign troops
insurgents