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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The Industrial Revolution and the agricultural revolution began in England.
Chapter 19
ENCLOSURE MOVEMENT - fencing off farm lands in the 1600s or combining them to make larger holdings for larger farming
Chapter 19
Large-scale farming became a necessity for England to feed its people during the Napoleonic Wars.
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The enclosure movement had 2 major results: 1) Large landowners had to force smaller landowners to become tenant farmers or move to the city. 2) Since land was not shared by many people, farmers could experiment without getting any consent from others.
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GENTLEMEN FARMERS - experimenting farmers (like Jethro Tull)
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JETHRO TULL - invented the seed drill to plant in regular rows, and the horse-drawn cultivator
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VISCOUNT CHARLES "TURNIP" TOWNSHEND - created the system of CROP ROTATION (such as wheat and barley one year, and turnips the next)
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ROBERT RANSOME - invented the iron plow in three-parts, so that you could replace a broken part instead of buying a new plow
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Unemployed farm workers who moved to the big cities created a large work force.
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FACTORS OF PRODUCTION - the basic resources necessary for industrialization
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The factors of production: land, capital, and labor (and McCollaum adds "entrepreneurship")
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Land - Britain had lots of natural resources, such as land, coal, and iron ore. They also had nice harbors and river-transportation.
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Capital - goods and stuff used in the production process (tools, machinery, equipment, inventory). Many Britons had gotten a lot of money from the slave trade in the colonies and wanted to invest in new businesses.
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The agricultural revolution provided a lot of industrial labor in the cities.
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England had all 3 necessary things required for the industrial revolution and had a grasp on overseas trade, which may explain why the industrial revoltion took place first in Great Britain.
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MECHANIZATION - the use of automatic machinery to increase production
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The cotton textile industry was the first industry in Great Britain to undergo mechanization.
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DOMESTIC SYSTEM - a system in which men and women work in their homes
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A LOOM is set up with a series of threads, called the WARP, strung from top to bottom.
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The loom operator pushes a shuttle containing the WOOF, or the thread running crosswise to the warp, back and forth across the loom in a very time-consuming process.
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JOHN KAY - a clockmaker who invented the FLYING SHUTTLE, a cord mechanism that moved the woof thread more rapidly across the loom.
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Some offered a prize for the best new spinning machine. It could produce 8 times as much thread as a single spinning wheel.
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RICHARD ARKWRIGHT - invented the water frame, a spinning machine driven by waterpower
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Most people couldn’t afford the water frame in their homes, so Arkwright opened a spinning mill, brining workers and machines together in one place to make goods.
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Employees worked a set number of hours for a certain amount of money. By 1784, he employed several hundred workers.
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Arkwright's mill marked the beginning of the modern FACTORY SYSTEM.
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SAMUEL CROMPTON - invented the SPINNING MULE, which combined the best features of the spinning jenny and the water frame.
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EDMUND CARTWRIGHT - an English minister who invented the power loom, which was powered by water. With this, one could weave as much as TWO-HUNDRED men normally could.
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Around the same time as Cartwright invented the power loom, one of KAY's sons invented a way to print colored patterns on cotton cloth.
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By 1802, England imported 60 million pounds of cloth a year (where it had been only 1 million in 1701)
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Most of the raw cotton came from the SOUTHERN UNITED STATES.
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ELI WHITNEY - invented the COTTON GIN, which was a device that removed all the seeds from the raw cotton with ease.
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The cotton gin did the work of FIFTY people. The south became the cotton-producing center of the world.
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Waterpower had its downsides: 1) The factory had to be near a stream, river, or waterfall, or a place where a damn could be built. This wasn’t usually near the raw materials, markets, or a labor supply. 2) Waterflow changed with the seasons.
Chapter 19
STEAM replaced waterpower. It was used since ancient times.
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THOMAS NEWCOMEN - English engineer, invented the first successful STEAM ENGINE.
Chapter 19
JAMES WATT - Scottish instrument maker and engineer, sudied the Newcomen engine. Produced the modern STEAM ENGINE. His engine was then used in producing cloths.
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IRON and COAL were two of the most used raw materials during the revolution, and England had vast amounts of both. Coal replaced WOOD and CHARCOAL as the most effective materials used to separate iron from its ore.\
Chapter 19
Iron often exploded inside the engines because it could not handle the high pressure of steam.STEEL was created, iron with certain impurities removed.
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WILLIAM KELLY (American) and HENRY BESSEMER (English) - developed a cheap and efficient way of making steel.
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BESSEMER PROCESS - Air was forced through the molten iron to burn out carbon and other impurities.
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The Bessemer process was similar to something developed more than 1,500 years ago by the HAYA people of southern Africa.
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Industrialization and mechanization was applied to shoes, clothing, ammunition, furniture, papermaking, printing, food production, and lumber.
Chapter 19
COKE was used to improve the smelting process. Because of this, London became one of the first cities to pipe in gas to burn in street lamps.
Chapter 19
Rubber was first used in shoes and coats to make them waterproof, but it became sticky in warm weather.
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CHARLES GOODYEAR - created an elastic and useable rubber, made by mixing rubber and sulfur and heating it.
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Goodyear's method is called VULCANIZATION.
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The oil industry developed after 1850, when people discovered how to use crude oil, called PETROLEUM, to produce paraffin for candles, lube for machinery, or kerosene for light and heat.
Chapter 19
A passenger in a stagecoach could travel 50 miles a day.
Chapter 19
JOHN MCADAM - a Scottish engineer who worked out a way to build roads of layers of carefully selected small stones on top of large stones. The roads were called MACADAM roads.
Chapter 19
Today, ASPHALT is used to bind the small stones together.
Chapter 19
GEORGE STEPHENSON - English engineer who perfected a steam-propelled moving engine, or LOCOMOTIVE, that ran on rails.
Chapter 19
In 1829, Stephenson's train, the ROCKET, pulled a line of cars at a whopping 29 MPH. Steel rails and air brakes were later added.
Chapter 19
ROBERT FULTON - American, established the first regular inland steamboat service. His boat was called the CLERMONT, and was launched on the HUDSON RIVER.
Chapter 19
The Clermont took regular trips between NYC and ALBANY.
Chapter 19
The GREAT WESTERN, a ship, crossed the Atlantic Ocean in FIFTEEN days.
Chapter 19
SAMUEL CUNARD - British, founded the CUNARD LINE shipping company which ran across the Atlantic.
Chapter 19
ALESSANDRO VOLTA - Italian, build the first battery, that provided a steady current of electricity.
Chapter 19
ANDRE AMPERE - French, worked out the principles governing the magnetic effect of an electric current
Chapter 19
SAMUEL MORSE - came up with MORSE CODE, a series of dots and dashes. He invented the TELEGRAPH, a practical commucation instrument.
Chapter 19
With the telegraph, each letter of the alphabet could be translated into Morse code. Messages traveled at the speed of electricity.
Chapter 19
CYRUS FIELD and a group of Americans laid a cable across the Atlantic which transmitted electricity.
Chapter 19
Wars slowed down the Industrial Revolution. England refused to let its skilled workers leave the country.
Chapter 19
The French government developed its own industry in 2 ways: 1) It imposed high tariffs to keep out foreign manufactured goods. 2) It encouraged the construction of railroads.
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France was mostly agricultural.
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The industrial development in Germany had to occur only after the unification of Germany in the 1870s.
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The Americans borrowed a lot of the ideas from the British. In order to develop industry, America used what it had: national unity and natural resources.
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The steel industry grew in PITTSBURGH and the Great Lakes, and farm machinery was manufactured in CHICAGO. By 1869, the US had a railroad across the country. In less than a year, the nation was second only to England in manufacturing.
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CYRUS MCCORMICK - 1834, developed the McCormick reaper, drawn by horses, that cut up grain. The mechanical thresher followed.
Chapter 19