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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Broca's area
Third frontal convolution in left hemisphere
Broca's patient
Monsieur LeBorgne
"Tan"
Wernicke's aphasia
Speak fluently but unable to understand what is said to them.
Speech virtually unintelligibly
Neologism
"New word" - common in sensory ahasia
Conduction aphasia
Damage to link between motor and sensory "centers" for words
Impairment in repetition
Transcortical motor aphasia (Lichteim)
Broca's with preservation of repetition
Transcortical sensory aphasia (Lichteim)
Wernicke's with preservation of repetition
Dissociation of function
Patient impaired in one aspect of a function (a) but not in another (b)
Double dissociation of function
Patient impaired on (b) but not on (a) in dissociation. Like a crossover interaction
Lissauer
Distinction between apperceptive and associative agnosias
Apperceptive agnosia
Difficulty perceiving and discriminating visual stimuli

Minimal lesion: right parietal lobe
Associative agnosia
Difficulty interpreting was is seen

Minimal lesion: occipitotemporal regions of left hemisphere
Disorders of sensory discrimination
Acuity
Shape discrimination
Color (achromatopsia)

Lesion: bilateral posterial cerebral
(Unilateral is confined to one visual field and called retinotopic)
Prosopagnosia: Three types
Impaired visual analysis of faces
Impaired perception of faces
Impaired recognition of individual faces

Lesion: posterior right hemisphere is necessary, but not necessarily sufficient
Optic ataxia
Inability to intgrate visual with motor coordination (can't reach for something)
Neglect: localization
Either right or left, but severity of neglect greatest in right parietal
Apraxia
Coined term: steinthal
Deficit distinct from paralysis that affects ability to produce voluntary actions
Types of Apraxia
Single repetitive movements
Unfamiliar actions and action sequences (Luria)
Familiar gestures
Object use
Body part specific actions (including oral apraxia)
Constructional tasks
Oral apraxia
Unable to produce voluntary oral action on command (cough, protrude tongue, blow,etc.) but can do in naturalistic circumstances

Localization: anterior sectors of left hemisphere. Possibly localized to left central operculum and insula
Constructional apraxia
Impairment in organization of complex actions in space (use tests of copying and drawing, block design)

Localization: type of impairment varies with lateralization of lesion. Right: "exploded diagram," gross alteration
Left: oversimplify
Apraxia: localization
All cortical. Lesions to basal ganglia and related structures not considered
Ideomotor apraxia
Differentially impaired in ability to imitate unfamiliar action
Ideational apraxia
Differentially impaired in ability to recall familiar sequences of actions (Liepmann)
How many phonemes in English
38
Single word comprehension failure in aphasics most affected by
word frequency (direct, strong relationship)
Category specificity in aphasia
Concrete vs. abstract
Color names
Body part names (autopagnosia)
Proper names
Action names
Localization for temporal resolution of acoustic signals
Bilateral lesions of temporal lobes
Localization of phonemic impairments
left temporal lobe
Word retrieval difficulties as a relatively specific deficit, in the context of normal sentence formuation
Anomic, amnestic, or nominal aphasia
Phonemic paraphasia
Single sound error
E.g., lemon to demmun
Semantic errors
Error based on meaning

E.g., boot to shoe
naming impairments can be
modality specific (i.e. objects, body parts, abstract words, thought to be a disconnection syndrome
word retrieval difficulties may arise because of the following varied causes:
difficulty comprehending the target
difficulty making necessary links betwrern different modalities of sensory or semantic information
impaired in proedures of word search
difficulty pecififying appropriate phonological form of the target
prosody
variations in emphasis, pitch, and timing together
"melody of speech"
jargon aphasia
production of copious flow of unintelligible speech
dynamic aphasia
almost mute in conversational spech, but dramatic preservation of ability to name objects, read, and repeat sentences
speech production deficit: two major classes
organization and sequencing of phonemes (phonemic disorder)

adequate selection of appropriate phonemes, but impaired in organizatino of actions necessary for their production (kinetic disorder, distinguished from dysarthric disorder)
dysarthric disorder of speech
not specific speech production deficit - primary motor impairment, therefore also have difficuty with eating or swallowing
phonemic impairment of speech production
no difficulty retrieving target word, but problems producing it. words have resemblance in sound - poaraphasias - snail to stale

arcuate fasciculus most critical

very common in aphasias, if isolated they are associated with conduction aphasia and transcortical motor aphasia
kinetic impairment of speech production
disotorted speech sounds, speech slow abnormal timing and syllable stress, sounds childlike or foreign

anterior dominant hemisphere involving pars opercularis, inferior prerolandic gyrus, or white matter deep to those areas
Dejerine
described dyslexia without dysgraphia - writing without being able to read what's written
visual word form dyslexia
spelling dyslexia - a form of dyslexia without dysgraphia, where pts attempt to read letter by letter, disconnection syndrome
central dyslexias
surface dyslexia/phonological reading; relatively common, wide variance in localization, although involvement posteriorly necessary

reading by sight vocabulary/phonological dyslexia
neglect dyslexia - a type of visual word form dyslexia
inability to read the initial (left neglect) or terminal (right neglect) parts of words
deep dyslexia
ability to read concrete or imageable words but not abstract words
ideational agraphia
patient unable to write letters or words to dictation yet be capable of producing legible copies of same material
spatial agraphia
orientation, neglect, reiteration of strokes, and spacing errors
hecaen, et al tripartite classification of acalculias
anarithmetria - primary deficit in calculation
alexic and/or agraphic - attributable to specific deficis in reading or writing numbers

spatial - errors arise because of spatial disorganization
impaired calculation associated with damage to
posterior sectors of left hemisphere
reading numbers
a different skill than reading letters or words, probably a specific category of semantic knowledge
STM - information forgotten quickly if not able to rehearse. In Brown
Peterson task, use distraction to prevent attending to information learned. In this case, people can forget information in
less than a minute
lesion for severe auditory verbal short term memory deficits
inferior parietal lobe of left hemisphere
lesion for spatial span impairments
posterior sectors of right hemisphere
Baddeley working memory model
articulatory loop
visuospatial sketchpad
central executive
short term memory not a gateway
to longer term storage of information
anterograde amnesia
difficulty recalling events which have occurred since the onset of illness
retrograde amnesia
difficulty recalling events which occurred before the onset of the condition
confabulation
pt. produces memories that have no basis in actual events
reduplicative paramnesia
patient believes that certain places are duplicated
global amnesia arises from lesions
bilaterally in medial surface of temporal lobes, particularly hippocampus and amygdala

or loss of neurons in thalamus and mamillary bodies (associated with Korsakoff syndrome)(degeneration of dorsal medial nucleus)
Korsakoff syndrome
loss of neurons in thalamus and mamillary bodies

heavy and chronic alcohol abuse together with a thiamine deficiency
material specific memory
verbal - left hemisphere
nonverbal - right hemisphere