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36 Cards in this Set

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African sleeping sickness
(also called trypanosomiasis) Disease of equatorial Africa caused by protozoan blood parasites of the genus Trypanosoma
bacterial meningitis
An inflammation of the meninges, the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord by any one of several bacterial species
blood–brain barrier
Formation in the brain of special thick-walled capillaries without pores in their walls that limit entry of substances into brain cells
botulism
Disease caused by Clostridium botulinum.The most common form, foodborne botulism, results from ingestion of preformed toxin and is, therefore, an intoxication rather than an infection
brain abscess
A pus-filled cavity caused by microorganisms reaching the brain from head wounds or via blood from another site
eastern equine encephalitis
Type of viral encephalitis seen most often in the eastern United States; infects horses more frequently than humans
encephalitis
An inflammation of the brain caused by a variety of viruses or bacteria
Hansen’s disease
The preferred name for leprosy; caused by Mycobacterium leprae, it exhibits various clinical forms ranging from tuberculoid to lepromatous
herpes meningoencephalitis
A serious disease caused by herpesvirus that can cause permament neurological damage or death and that sometimes follows a generalized herpes infection or ascends from the trigeminal ganglion
infant botulism
(also called “floppy baby” syndrome) Form of botulism in infants associated with ingestion of honey
kuru
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy disease of the human brain, caused by prions, associated with cannibalism and tissue/organ transplants
leproma
An enlarged, disfiguring skin lesion that occurs in the lepromatous form of Hansen’s disease
lepromatous
Referring to the nodular form of Hansen’s disease (leprosy) in which a granulomatous response causes enlarged, disfiguring skin lesions called lepromas
lepromatous
Referring to the nodular form of Hansen’s disease (leprosy) in which a granulomatous response causes enlarged, disfiguring skin lesions called lepromas
lepromin skin test
Test used to detect Hansen’s disease (leprosy); similar to the tuberculin test
listeriosis
A type of meningitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes that is especially threatening to those with impaired immune systems
mad cow disease
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy disease of the brain of cattle, caused by prions
meninges
Three layers of membrane that protect the brain and spinal cord
nerve
A bundle of neuron fibers that relays sensory and motor signals throughout the body
nervous system
The body system, comprising the brain, spinal cord, and nerves, that coordinates the body’s activities in relation to the environment
peripheral nervous system
All nerves outside the central nervous system
prion
An exceedingly small infectious particle consisting of protein without any nucleic acid
progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
Disease caused by the JC polyomavirus with symptoms including mental deterioration, limb paralysis, and blindness
pseudocyst
An aggregate of trypanosome protozoa that forms in lymph nodes in Chagas’ disease
rabies virus
An RNA-containing rhabdovirus that is transmitted through animal bites
rabies
A viral disease that affects the brain and nervous system with symptoms including hydrophobia and aerophobia; transmitted by animal bites
sac fungus
(also called Ascomycota) A member of a diverse group of fungi that produces saclike asci during sexual reproduction
scrapie
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy disease of the brain of sheep, causing extreme itching so that the sheep repeatedly scrape themselves against posts, trees, etc.
tetanus neonatorum
Type of tetanus acquired through the raw stump of the umbilical cord
tetanus
(also called lockjaw) Disease caused by Clostridium tetani in which muscle stiffness progresses to eventual paralysis and death
transmissible spongiform encephalopathies
Prion-caused diseases resulting in brain tissue developing multiple holes such that it resembles a sponge, includes Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease, mad cow disease, kuru, scrapie, and others
Venezuelan equine encephalitis
Type of viral encephalitis seen in Florida, Texas, Mexico, and South America; infects horses more frequently than humans
viral meningitis
Usually self-limiting and nonfatal form of meningitis
West Nile fever
Emerging viral disease new to U.S., transmitted by mosquitoes, causing seizures and encephalitis, lethal to crows
western equine encephalitis
Type of viral encephalitis seen most often in the western United States; infects horses more frequently than humans
wound botulism
Rare form of botulism that occurs in deep wounds when tissue damage impairs circulation and creates anaerobic conditions in which Clostridium botulinum can multiply