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78 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
neoplasm
A localized tumor
reticulate body
An intracellular stage in the life cycle of chlamydias
bunyavirus
An enveloped RNA virus that causes some forms of respiratory distress and hemorrhagic fever
parvovirus
A small, naked DNA Virus
release
The exit from the host cell of new virions, which usually kills the host cell
cell culture
A culture in the form of a monolayer from dispersed cells and continuous cultures of cell suspensions
glycoprotein
A long, spikelike molecule made of carbohydrate and protein that projects beyond the surface of a cell or viral envelope; some viral glycoproteins attach the virus to receptor sites onhost cells, while others aid fusion of viral and cellular membranes
plaque-forming unit
A plaque counted on a bacterial lawn that gives only an approximate number of phages present, because a given plaque may have been due to more than one phage
malignant
Relating to a tumor that is cancerous
picornavirus
A small, naked RNA virus; different genera are responsible for polio, the common cold, and hepatitis
naked virus
A virus that lacks an envelope
latency
The ability of a virus to remain in host cells for long periods of time while retaining the ability to replicate
neoplastic transformation
The uncontrollable divison of host cells caused by infection with a DNA tumor virus
burst size
(also called viral yield) The number of new virions released in the replication process
viroid
An infectious RNA particle, smaller than a virus and lacking a cuspid, that causes various plant diseases
hepatovirus
One of three major groups of picornaviruses that can infect nerve and is responsible for causing hepatitis A
bacterial lawn
A uniform layer of bacteria growth on the agar surface in a Petri dish
oncogene
A cancer-causing gene
poxvirus
DNA virus that is the largest and most complex of all viruses
negative (-) sense RNA
An RNA strand made up of bases complementary to those of a positive (+) sense RNA
latent viral infection
An infection typical of herpes viruses in which an infection in childhood that is brought under control later in life is reactivated
lysogenic conversion
The ability of a prophage to prevent additional infections of the same cell by the same type of phage; also the conversion of a non-toxin-producing bacterium into a toxin-producing one by a temperate phage
herpes virus
A relatively large, enveloped DNA virus that can remain latent in host cells for long periods of time
latent period
Period of a bacteriophate growth curve that spans the time from penetration through biosynthesis
burst time
The time from absorption to release of phages (in the replication process)
eclipse period
Period during which viruses have absorbed to and penetrated host cells but cannot be detected in cells
provirus
Viral DNA that is incorporated into a host-cell chromosome
continuous cell line
Cell culture consisting of cells that can be propagated over many generations
syncytium
(plural: syncytia) A multinucleate mass in a cell culture, for example, caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
tumor
A uncontrolled division of cells, often caused by viral infection
obligate intracellular parasite
An organism or virus that can live or multiply only inside a living host cell
cell strain
Dominant cell type resulting from subculturing
hepadnavirus
A small, enveloped DNA virus with circular DNA; one such virus causes hepatitis B
TORCH series
A group of blood tests used to identify teratogenic diseases in pregnant women and newborn infants
flavivirus
A small enveloped (+) sense RNA virus that causes a variety of encephalitides, including yellow fever
spike
A glycoprotein projection that extends to form the viral capsid or envelope and is used to attach to or fuse with host cells
adsorption
The attachment of the virus to the host cell in the replication process
maturation
The process by which complete virions are assembled from newly synthesized components in the replication process
togavirus
A small, enveloped RNa virus taht multiplies in many mammalian and arthropod cells
reovirus
A medium-sized RNA virus that has a double-capsid with no envelope; causes upper respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in humans
latent disease
A disease characterized by period of inactivity either before symptoms appear or between attacks
filovirus
A filamentious virus that displays unusual variability in shape. Two filoviruses, the Ebola virus and the Marburg virus, have been associated with human disease
orthomyxovirus
A medium-sized, enveloped RNA virus that varies in shape from spherical to filamentous and has an affinity for mucus
penetration
The entry of the virus (or its nucleic acid) into the host cell in the replication process
DNA tumor virus
An animal virus capable of causing tremors
rheumatoid factor
IgM found in the blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and their relatives
R group
An organic chemical group attached to the central carbon atom in an amino acid
positive (+) sense RNA
An RNA strand that encodes information for making proteins needed by a virus
host range
The different types of organisms that a microbe can infect
nucleocapsid
The nucleic acid and capsid of a virus
synthesis
The step of viral replication during which new nucleic acids and viral proteins are made
replication cycle
The series of steps of virus replication in a host cell
monolayer
A suspension of cells that attach to plastic or glass surfaces as a sheet one cell layer thick
genome
The genetic information in an organism or virus
tissue culture
Culture made from a single tissue, assuring a reasonably homogenous set of cultures in which to test the effects of a virus or to culture an organism
papovavirus
A small, naked DNA virus that causes both benign and malignant warts in humans; some types cause cervical cancer
capsomere
A protein aggregate that makes up a viral capsid
adenovirus
A medium-sized, naked DNA virus that is highly resistant to chemical agents and often causes respiratory infectinos or diarrhea
enveloped virus
A virus with a bilayer membrane outside its capsid
capsid
The protein coating of a virus, which protects the nucleic acid core from the environment and usually determines the shape of a virus
viral specificity
Refers to the specific types of cells within an organism that a virus can infect
complex virus
A virus, such as bacteriophage or poxvirus, that has an envelope or specialized structures
primary cell culture
A culture that comes directly from an animal and is not subcultured
paramyxovirus
A medium-sized, enveloped RNA virus that has an affinity for mucus
teratogenesis
The induction of defects during embryonic development
enterovirus
One of three major groups of picornaviruses that can infect nerve and muscle cells, the respiratory tract lining, and skin
teratogen
An agent tht induces defects during embryonic development
cancer
An uncontrolled, invasive growth of abnormal cells
virion
A complete virus particle, including its own envelope if it has one
envelope
A bilayer membrane found outside the capsid of some viruses, acquired as the virus buds through one of the host's membrane
benign
Not harmful
subculturing
The process by which cells from an existing culture are transferred to fresh medium in new containers
arenavirus
An enveloped RNA virus that causes Lassa fever and certain other hemorrhagic fevers
uncoating
Process in which protein coats of animal viruses that have entered cells are removed by proteolytic enzymes
plaque essay
A viral assay used to determine viral yield by culturing viruses on a bacterial lawn and counting plaques
metastasize
Relating to the spread of malignant tumors to other body tissues
plaque
A clean area in a bacterial lawn culture where viruses have lysed cells`
cytopathic effect (CPE)
The visible effect viruses have on cells