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45 Cards in this Set

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fungi
(singular: fungus) The kingdom of nonphotosynthetic, eukaryotic organisms that absorb nutrients from their environment
taxonomy
The science of classification
Monera
(also called Prokaryotae) The kingdom of prokaryotic organisms that are unicellular and lack a true cell nucleus
Protista
The kingdom of organisms that are unicellular but contain internal organelles typical of the eukaryotes
eukaryote
An organism composed of eukaryotic cells
eukaryotic cell
A cell that has a distinct cell nucleus and other membrane-bound structures
thermoacidophile
A member of one of the groups of the archaeobacteria that live in extremely hot, acidic environments
phylogenetic
Pertaining to evolutionary relationships
growth curve
The different growth periods of a bacterial or phage population
binomial nomenclature
The system of taxonomy developed by Linnaeus in which each organism is assigned a genus and specific epithet
halobacteria
One of the groups of the archaeobacteria that live in very concentrated salt environments
mycoplasmas
Very small bacteria with cell membranes, RNA and DNA, but no cell walls
five-kingdom system
System of classifying organisms into one of five kingdoms:Monera (Prokaryotae), Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia
polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE)
A technique for separating proteins from a cell based in their molecular size
dichotomous key
Taxonomic key used to identify organisms; composed of paired (either-or) statements describing characteristics
Chlamydiae or chlamydias
Tiny, nonmotile, spherical bacteria; all are obligate intracellular parasites with a complex life cycle
strain
A subgroup of a species with one or more characteristics that distinguish it from other subgroups of that species
protein profile
A technique for visualizing the proteins contained in a cell; obtained by the use of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
prokaryote
Microorganism that lacks a cell nucleus and membrane-enclosed internal structures; all bacteria in the kingdom Monera (Prokaryotae) are prokaryotes
divergent evolution
Process in which descendants of a common ancestor species undergo sufficient change to be identified as separate species
cyanobacteria
Photosynthetic, prokaryotic, typically unicellular organisms that are members of the kingdom Monera
domain
A new taxonomic category above the kingdom level, consisting of the Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya
genus
A taxon consisting of one or more species; the first name of an organism in the binomial system of nomenclature; for example, Escherichia in Escherichia coli
eubacteria
True bacteria
type strain
Original reference strain of a bacterial species, descendants of a single isolation in pure culture
probe
A single-stranded DNA fragment that has a sequence of bases that can be used to identify complementary DNA base sequences
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
A type of RNA that, together with specific proteins,makes up the ribosomes
extreme thermoacidophile
Organism requiring very hot and acidic environment; usually belonging to the Domain Archaea.
corynebacteria
Club-shaped, irregular, non-pore-forming, Gram-positive rods
Archaea
One of the three Domains of living things; all members are bacterial
Ureaplasmas
Bacteria with unusual cell walls, require sterols as a nutrient
stromatolite
Live or fossilized layered mats of photosynthetic prokaryotes associated with warm lagoons or hot springs
methanogens
One of the groups of the Archaeobacteria that produce methane gas
numerical taxonomy
Comparison of organisms based on quantitative assessment of a large number of characteristics
Animalia
The kingdom of organisms to which all animals belong
genetic homology
The similarity of DNA base sequences among organisms
phage typing
Use of bacteriophages to determine similarities or differences among different bacteria
ribosome
Site for protein synthesis consisting of RNA and protein, located in the cytoplasm
taxon
(plural:taxa) A category used in classification, such as species,genus,order, family
specific epithet
The second name of an organism in the binomial system of nonmenclature, following that of the genus—for example, coli in Escherichia coli
Plantae
The kingdom of organisms to which all plants belong
species
A group of organisms with many common characteristics; the narrowest taxon
shrub of life
A diagram that represents our current understanding of the early evolution of life.There are many roots rather than a single ancestral line, and the branches criss-cross and merge again and again
archaeobacteria
Prokaryotic organisms lacking peptidoglycan in their cell walls and differing from eubacteria in many ways
DNA hybridization
Process in which the double strands of DNA of each of two organisms are split apart and the split strands from the two organisms are allowed to combine